The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of Earth back over 400,000 years. Below is a list of the main Sumerian Goddesses with details on their main area of influence and alternative spellings. Sumerian and Hindu Gods and Goddesses In the world of Sumeria, Gods and Goddesses existed participating in the affairs of the Heavens, Earth, and the Netherworld. Ningal: She is known as the "Great Lady" Goddess of reeds, the wife of the Moon God, Nanna and mother of Inanna. A list of deities from Sumerian mythology. It talked about a lot of things from high magick to vampirism and even a great war. See more ideas about gods and goddesses, sumerian, mesopotamia. The Sumerians believed that first there was the primeval sea that gave rise to a united heaven and earth. Inanna was known to Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians as Ishtar and Romans as Venus. The cult of Utu can be traced back to very early times. Nammu: Represents the primeval sea from which she gave birth to the heavens (An) and to the earth mother (Ki). Sumerian Gods & Goddesses . Though Inanna was brought to life, she had to produce a substitute to take her place in the nether world. Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. This course may be subject to changes. There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for every thing in the world, from rivers and mountains to making bread or pottery. Learn about the elemental Goddesses of Earth, Air, Wind and Fire. Gula often appears as a woman with stars and her dog. About 3-4 years ago, I started researching ancient Egyptian spirituality. Enlil was one of the most important gods in the pantheon. This region is literally heaven. Enki, the great Sumerian water god, was one of the four creation deities of Sumer, and the god of fresh water, male fertility, and knowledge. In Sumerian myth, An and Ki produced a variety of plants on the earth. Ereshkigal: Originally a sky Goddess kidnapped and taken to the underworld where she became Queen. According to legend, it was both Enlil and Enki who sent Labar, the cattle god, and Ashnan, the grain goddess, from heaven to earth to give mankind cattle and grain. Many other Sumerian gods and goddesses were thought to be his children in different myths. In another Sumerian story, called Ninurta and the Turtle, Enki’s tablet of destinies, which controls the future of humanity, is stolen by the demon Anzu. Many people believe that these Gods were of a reptilian nature. These are the Goddesses of creation and destruction. Then to see better, Enlil begot the moon-god Nanna, who in turn begot the sun-god Utu, presumably to make the light brighter. Earth was Sumer, it was created by the migrants from the Indus Valley. In art, Enki was represented as a seated god with a long beard surrounded by channels of water. A personification of the morning and evening star. The 7 Lesser Gods and Goddesses Ancient Sumerian Anunnaki. Ninlil followed her mother’s instructions and as a consequence was impregnated by “the water” of Enlil and conceived the moon god Nanna. He was described as bearded and long-armed, and it is thought he emerged from the doors of heaven at dawn and made a daily journey across the skies. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Epic of Gilgamesh: Summary in 10 Interesting Points, Top 10 Sumerian Inventions and Discoveries, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. She had many temples with the biggest one at Nippur. The goddess Inanna was the most important female deity of the ancient period. She protected the needy, providing food and shelter during hard times. This course includes the most important and highly worshiped deities from as long ago as 5000 BC. Goddess of childbirth. An was the great god in heaven and his two sons were Enki who was sent to Earth first and then Enlil. Agriculture and compassion are co-related when it comes to Sumerian mythology as a bountiful harvest shows the compassion of the gods. Inanna: Goddess of love, war, and fertility. Marduk, who to the Sumerians was just another god, was the leader of the gods to the Babylonians. Damkina: An Earth mother Goddess also known as Damgalnuna. He therefore had the moon god Nanna brighten the darkness of his house, followed by the sun god Utu, who became even greater than his father. Ashnan A Grain goddess created by the Gods to provide the Annunaki with food. Discussion and Lecture Presentation. I deciphered the ‘fish’ sign and found that it represents woman. Throughout Sumerian history, as a ruler of the Erech city-state, she was primarily responsible for sexual love and procreation as the life-giving goddess of love, ensuring the prosperity of the land and its people. After Enlil and Nanna both refused to help, Ninshubur went to Enki, the god of wisdom, who came to Inanna’s rescue. The city of Babylon was built to honor the great god Marduk. She chose Dumuzi, the shepherd god and her spouse to go to the underworld. The White Goddess Pantheons: Sumerian Gods and Goddesses. The main center of his cult was the temple of E-kur, or the Mountain House, at Nippur, and Enlil was often called “the great mountain” and “king of the foreign lands.”. She passed seven gates into the nether world, and her jewels were removed piece by piece as she walked until she was brought naked and on her knees before Ereshkigal who turned her into a corpse. Enki, the god of wisdom, organized the earth according to the decisions of Enlil, who made the general plans. As a protector of good and destroyer of evil, he also had a warrior aspect to his personality. Sumerian Mythology: Captivating Myths of Gods, Goddesses, and Legendary Creatures of Ancient Sumer and Their Importance to the Sumerians She was a patron of Uruk, where her principal shrine E-ana, or House of Heaven, was located. An became the ruler of heaven and Ki became the ruler of earth. Various Sumerian poems are about Inanna and her love for Dumuzi and how she was ultimately responsible for his death. The “little ones” (the stars), were scattered around like grain while the “big ones” (the planets), walked around the moon. Sumerian Mythology: Captivating Myths of Gods, Goddesses, and Legendary Creatures of Ancient Sumer and Their Importance to the Sumerians [Clayton, Matt] on Amazon.com. Queen of the mountains an aspect of the Earth Goddess Ki. Inanna descended to the nether world and approached Ereshkigal’s temple of lapis lazuli. Seven goddesses stood by to assist Nammu during the birth of mankind. Ninkasi: Goddess of alcohol. He was represented with flowing streams of water and swimming fishes. The execution of these plans was left to Enki who was wise, skillful, handy, and resourceful. She was the hot babe. He was describe… The Gods were jealous and they guarded their kingdoms zealously. The gods were known by different names depending on whether the scribes wrote Sumerian or Akkadian. During the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, Sumerian deities became more anthrocentric and were "...nature gods transformed into city gods." Jul 27, 2017 - Explore Mesopotamia's board "Ishtar" on Pinterest. Also known as Zarpanit, Zarpandit, Zerpanitum, Zerbanitu, and Zirbanit. In Sumerian mythology, An was the god whose name was synonymous with the sun's zenith, or heaven. There was bitter rivalry among the three. Anunnaki- Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Anunnaki – Sumerian God of Sky Anunnaki is the resultant of An, which is the Sumerian god of the sky. In Sumerian religion, the most powerful and important deities in the pantheon were the … She was also famous for taking one hundred divine decrees governing all cultural and political achievements which made up the Sumerian civilization in Enki. It was first published in clay tablet form — we had to wait several thousand years for a paperback edition. Nammu was also known as “the lady of the mountains.” In many poems, she is said to have created mankind by making a clay figurine which was then brought to life. Later they were separated by their son Enlil and moved away from each other. He was called Anu by the Akkadians, rulers of Mesopotamia after the conquest of Sumer in 2334 BCE by King Sargon of Akkad. Associated with the moon, Sin was represented as the bull, with the symbol alluding to the resemblance of the waxing moon to the horns of the animal. He has been described as a supreme lord, father, creator, and a “raging storm.” Enlil had the important task of allocating land and kingship to the kings and was a most beneficent god, responsible for planning and creating most of the features in the cosmos. His rains caused the land to bear grain and other food for his friends; hence his title Lord of Abundance. He represented the brilliant light of the sun, which returns every day to illuminate the lives of mankind, as well as providing the warmth to enable the plants to grow. Heaven consisted of the sky and the space above the sky which was called the “great above” where the sky gods lived. Major Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Adad – Adad had a twofold aspect, being both the giver and the destroyer of life. Especially among the rulers who hated each other even though they were siblings. Many Babylonian Gods and Goddesses originate from the Sumerian beliefs. Shala, the Goddess of Grain and Compassion Shala is a Sumerian goddess and a mountain on Venus, the Shala Mons, has been named after her. These tablets gave him control over the fate of man and made him very powerful. Nanna and his wife Ningal were the parents of Utu, the sun god, who was said to “rise in the mountains of the east and set in the mountains of the west.”. I would also like to share my favourite piecing together of the Sumerian creation myth as retold by Neal Robbins. In this article, you will encounter members of the Annunaki, which were ancient Sumerian gods and goddesses considered as coming from the "royal bloodlines" of the deities. Unique to Sumerian religion is the fact that there is an absolute inferiority of men to gods. His symbol is a horned cap. The horned ‘fish’ signs undoubtedly represent Innana the goddess of love. An - A sky god, the cuneiform symbol for this god, "Dingir," was the same as that for heaven and for divinity in general, reflecting his prominence in the Sumerian pantheon. These children of An at some point or other included Ningirsu, Gatumdug, Baba, Adad, Enki, Enlil, Girra, Nanna, Nergal, Sara, Inana, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninisinna, … This cosmological shift may have been caused by the gr… Gods, Goddesses, Demons & Monsters The Mesopotamian scribes compiled long lists of their gods. With the move from an agricultural society to an urban one the old nature deities became the patron Goddesses of the new city states. Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. He was also a protective guardian during the night when he watched over those who were asleep, bringing them good dreams and preventing nightmares. Main Gods and Goddesses. In fact it’s a roller-coaster adventure with the Gods, containing fantasy, love, bloodshed and allegorical insights into the human condition. In many books, he is described as a violent and destructive god, but it is clear that in the myths, he was a friendly, fatherly god, who ensured the safety and wellbeing of all humans, particularly the inhabitants of Sumer. The god Nusku, a god associated with fire and light, was regarded as his son. She was the goddess of love, war, and female fertility. They have human personality traits and frailties and live together in family groups. For example, the city of Babylon was said to have been built on top of the abzu.Sumerian texts about Enki often include … He resides in the ocean underneath the earth called the abzu (Akkadian apsû), which was an important place in Mesopotamian cosmic geography. You will therefore notice many similarities in their characteristics and themes. According to the some resources, these gods came from Nibiru - 'Planet of the Crossing.' Utu was the son of Nanna, the moon god, and the twin brother of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. Ereshkigal ruled the land of no return which was known by the names of Kigal or Irkalla. The goddess Gula (whose name means “great”) was a healing goddess who understood disease and became the patroness of doctors. Enlil - The god of air, wind, and storms, Enlil held the Tablets of Destiny. One of them is Utu , … In magical incantations, Nusku was one of the gods called upon to assist in the burning of sorcerers and witches. Utu was the Sumerian sun god. According to Sumerian poetry, the goddess Ninmah acted as a midwife. It is An who, in Sumerian tradition, took over heaven when it was separated from earth, creating the universe as we know it. Sumerian Gods and Goddesses Sumerian Gods Is Anu holding the symbolic Holy Grail of a Bloodline he created? In Sumerian poetry, Damu is sometimes described as the daughter of Ninisina. Utu was the Sumerian sun god. Nanna was one the patron deities of Ur. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. She also had a sister, Ereskigal, who was queen of the underworld. Ereshkigal, goddess of death and gloom, inhabited this nether world and was the older sister and bitter enemy of Inanna, the goddess of love and war. The Sumerian Goddesses and Gods were the foundation upon which their society was based. Also known as Ishtar. Their history is shrouded in mystery. The other gods worked for Marduk, with some being much more important than others. She was also believed to be the mother of Enki, the water god. Here it is impossible for men to achieve any sort of paradise, which is reserved only for the immortal gods, not for mortal men. In other religions, the faithful are afforded the comfort of life after death. (Foothills are hills that are near See more ideas about Ishtar, Sumerian, Gods and goddesses. Apart from An, Enlil, Enki and Inanna, there were three other deities that make up the seven most important gods and goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon. In Sumerian Mythology the Anunnaki were a pantheon of good and evil gods and goddesses (duality) who came to Earth to create the human race. His storms and hurricanes, evidences of his anger against his foes, brought darkness, want, and death. Until the 1800s, when the lost civilization was discovered, no one knew of the existence of a land called Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iran and Iraq). Inanna visited the underworld and told her vizier, or advisor, Ninshubur that if she did not return after three days, he was to alert the gods. Enki was also associated with wisdom, magic, incantations, and arts and crafts. Ki: The Earliest Sumerian earth Goddesses. 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