4 perspectives of leadership

The leader’s sight will be lifted from local to global, a widening of the horizons. It emphasizes people-related issues. The election of the first African-American President of the United States of America marked a significant milestone in the realization of the dream of a leader with great foresight. The theory holds that an individual is motivated by his perception of the possibility of achieving a goal through effective job performance. Here, leaders have a high degree of confidence in subordinates. Two general propositions have emerged from the path-goal theory of House and Mitchell: (i) The behavior of the leader is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that the subordinates see such behavior as either an immediate source of satisfaction, or as instrumental to future satisfaction. Content Filtration 6. SymbolicHere are descriptions of and differences between the Four Frames: This research grew largely out of work at the University of Iowa, the University of Michigan, and the Ohio State University. A move away from the autocratic end of the continuum represents a move towards the democratic end and vice versa. Consideration is similar to the employee-centered leader behavior of the Michigan studies. Moreover, they may have difficulty in bringing about innovation and change. In this section, we review major efforts to identify important leadership behaviors. Copyright 10. To be true to oneself will bring fulfillment, making a leader’s honest answers to this critical question a predictor of his “contentment quotient.” The response to this foundational question will raise the ultimate concern to the leader: “What is most important to me?” To win at all cost may be the stance of some leaders arising from who they are, while the perspective of others may demonstrate a “win-win,” “share-the-benefits” disposition. Prohibited Content 3. In other words, neither people nor production is emphasized, and little leadership is exhibited. Then the managers make the decision, which may or may not reflect subordinates’ influence. Fiedler and his associates at the University of Illinois suggested a contingency theory of leadership, which holds that people become leaders not only because of their personality attributes, but also because of various situational factors and the interactions between leaders and followers. Laissez-faire or hands-off (autocratic and delegatory) 6. Leadership and The Power of Perspective. This represents dictatorial leadership behavior, with all decisions made by the managers, and little employee participation. They have the insight to see the seeds of success in the feeble frames of failure, the potential of a leap in the frailty of a fall or the promise of the bottom half of a rainbow that is hidden by the unending horizon. And when I recently saw the work of Gus Petro, who put a new perspective on New York City … Apart from the expectancy theory variables, the other situational factors contributing to effective leadership include: (a) Characteristics of subordinates, such as their needs, self-confidence, and abilities; and. On the contrary, a wider perspective of time keeps us humble in our place in the flow of history. Ultimately, the leader lifts the possibility of a dream to action. However, the individual must be able to link his or her efforts to the effectiveness of his/her job performance, leading to the accomplishment of goals. It arrests despair and motivates aspiration and achievement. At the other extreme, even in a favorable situation wherein the leader has considerable position power, a well-defined task structure and good leader-member relations exist; Fiedler found that a task-oriented leader would be the most effective. Leadership style 5, 5 is called ‘organization-man management.’ It is also called ‘middle-of-the- road management.’ Here there is an intermediate (or moderate) amount of concern for both production and people. Global Perspectives on Leadership Summary Our review of leadership thinking begins with global perspectives, and what ‘good’ leadership looks like in a global context. editorial board of the Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, I thank you for support on the journal. Whether the leader will be secure enough to empower or honor co-workers and subordinates, whether the leader can be himself without pretensions; these are contingent on his answers to this question. These leaders conclude that those who are resisting are unwilling to change, lack a strong work ethic, or have misplaced priorities. Laissez-faire leaders use their power very rarely. How to Write Claim Letter and Request for Favours? According to this theory, leaders are born, not made. He suggested that the actualizing tendency is the driving force behind human behavior. All leaders do not possess all the traits mentioned in these theories, whereas many non-leaders possess many of them. They give the group complete freedom. If, on the other hand, managers are relatively inflexible in leadership style, they will be effective only in those situations that best match their style or that can be adjusted to match their style. Relationship-oriented. The late Michael Jackson, the “King of Pop” aptly iterated, “If you enter this world knowing you are loved and you leave this world knowing the same, then everything that happens in between can be dealt with.” It is in the relational dimension that meaning and purpose in life can be found, that hope in finding a way out of intractable situations can be discovered. This is an adapted excerpt from Peter’s upcoming book on leadership. Foresight Structural 2. Fiedler’s basic assumption is that it is quite difficult for managers to alter the management styles that made them successful. Transformational Leadership Theory. This management style may be based on a belief that the most important leadership activity is to secure the voluntary cooperation of group members in order to obtain high levels of productivity. Contingency Theories 4. However, this theory was too simplistic. In this fourth phase, followers no longer need direction from their manager and can take their own decisions. He suggested four systems of management. Leadership Perspectives / 4 weeks ago. The Ohio State two-dimensional approach is shown in Figure 12.2. The contingency theories focus on the following factors: There are four popular situational theories of leadership: (a) Fiedler’s contingency approach to leadership. Different studies do not agree about which traits are leadership traits, or how they are related to leadership behavior. Further work on leadership at the University of Michigan seemed to confirm that the employee centered approach was much more useful as compared to a job-centered or production-centered approach. This management style is called the “benevolent-authoritative” style. When new school leaders encounter resistance to a great idea, they often find themselves mentally criticizing the people who oppose it. Peter also sits on the Board of Trustees at Fuller Theological Seminary in USA; chairs the Board of Amber Initiative, a youth social justice initiative in Singapore and the True to Life Foundation, a community service agency in Thailand. They should help the subordinates find the best way of doing things and remove the impediments that hinder them from realizing the set goals. Instrumental Leadership behavior involves providing clear guidelines to subordinates. But as the JLS prepares for Issue 11.4, we introduce an additional section called Leadership Perspectives. Visionary leaders seem to be able to see beyond the existential to understand what events mean to people. According to Economy, leadership embodies: Decisiveness; Awareness; Focus Recently, it has been realized that managers are not necessarily leaders. This article throws light upon the top four theories of leadership. Helping others follow the 4 Principles will entrench leadership as an organizational capability, enabling all to succeed. This management style is task-oriented and stresses the quality of production over the wishes of subordinates. (ii) The behavior of the leader will be motivational to the extent that: (a) Such behavior makes the satisfaction of subordinates’ needs contingent on effective performance, and. A large number of studies have been made on the premise that leadership is strongly affected by the situations in which the leader emerges, and in which he or she operates. It also entails the leaders showing concern for the subordinates and their being friendly and approachable. While the amount of work done was equal in the groups with autocratic and democratic leaders; work quality and group satisfaction was higher in the democratic groups. It is similar to the job-centered leader behavior of the Michigan studies, but includes a broader range of managerial functions such as planning, organizing, and directing. The effective leader realizes that all aspects of reality are part of a larger context and the result of changes over time. Traits Theory They were then placed in charge of various groups in a preadolescent boys’ club. The theme of this issue is “Pauline Perspectives of Leadership”. Theoretical perspectives are organized in a four-fold typology based on the dominating assumptions of the research effort: (1) the focus on a universally appropriate set of leadership traits, (2) the focus on a universally appropriate behavioral style, (3) the focus on situationally contingent leadership traits, and (4) the focus on situationally contingent behavioral styles. Leadership style 1, 9 is called ‘country club management.’ There is high concern for people but low concern for production. Account Disable 12. Expectancy theory is the foundation of the path-goal concept of leadership. Team managers believe that concern for people and for tasks are compatible. Human Resource 3. Therefore, no definite conclusions could be drawn and further studies appeared necessary. However, in the long run, the managers should attempt to move towards the subordinate-centered end of the continuum; as such leader behavior has the potential to improve decision quality, teamwork, employee motivation, morale, and employee development. Fiedler’s model suggests that an appropriate match of the leader’s style (as measured by the LPC score) with the situation (as determined by the three dimensions – position power, task structure, leader-member relations) leads to effective managerial performance. This is appropriate since employees need to be instructed in their tasks and should be familiarized with the organization’s rules and procedures. There are four roles leaders play that are highly predictive of success. Laissez-faire Leader I was ten years old and my paternal grandfather shared a lesson with me from his time in the U.S. Marine Corps. The path-goal theory indicates that effective leadership is dependent on, firstly, clearly defining, for subordinates, the paths to goal attainment; and, secondly, the degree to which the leader is able to improve the chances that the subordinates will achieve their goals. Depending on the nature of the problem, more than one leadership style might be suitable. Philosophers and anthropologists talk about “worldview” as “a point of view on the world, a perspective of things, a way of looking at the cosmos from a particular vantage point.” In philosophy, “worldview” is perceived mainly in cognitive dimensions, leaving out the affective and moral scopes. Terms of Service 7. Sometimes the hard truths might just demoralize the company, but at other times sharing difficulties can inspire people to take action that will make the situation better. Three important “Being” questions shape a leader’s perspectives. Coach (motivational) 2. How they perceive and define reality will determine appropriate actions or directions to be taken. Vroom and Yetton developed a decision model by matching the decision styles to the situation according to the answers given to the seven questions. A Lifting Sight Two researchers, Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton, developed a model of situational leadership to help managers to decide when and to what extent they should involve employees in solving a particular problem. It would be inappropriate to use participatory relationship behavior at this stage because the employees need to understand how the organization works. The inspiration of such a vision of the future is what leaders bring. It is at this stage that the leader needs to increase relationship behavior. Leaders bring about major changes, and inspire followers to put in extraordinary levels of effort. Managers share a problem with subordinates as a group. According to Hersey and Blanchard, if the style is appropriate, it will not only motivate employees but will also help them develop in their professions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. These findings put managers in a dilemma over which style to choose. A visionary leader’s sight will also be lifted from the human to the divine, the ability to discern the finger of God in human affairs, acknowledging a higher accountability for any leader. The followers are attracted to the leader’s magnetic personality, oratory skills, and exceptional ability to respond to crises. This grid shown in Figure 12.3 is used all over the world for training managers and for identifying various combinations of leadership styles. The leader need not be as task-oriented as before, but will still have to be supportive and considerate so that the employees can take on greater responsibilities. According to Burns, heroic leadership was displayed by those leaders who inspired and transformed followers. It is based on the premise that leaders need to alter their behaviors depending on a major situational factor – the readiness of followers. Common leadership styles: 1. In his survey of leadership theories and research, Ralph M. Stogdill found that various researchers have related some specific traits to leadership ability. Visionary (progress-focused and inspirational) 3. The question also provides perspective when relational conflicts and intractable people-situations require forgiveness, generosity, and the possibility of second chances. System 3 management is referred to as the “consultative” style. Depending on the degree of the managerial concern for people and production, a manager can fall anywhere on the grid. In other words, the readiness of employees refers to their willingness and ability to handle a particular task. Leaders have the ability to look beyond the obvious to discern implications, beyond the actions to the motivations, beyond the words to the intentions. The most intimate context that influences a leader is his self-perception. The five leadership styles are as follows: Managers solve the problem or make the decision themselves, using information available at that time. This management style does not provide leadership in a positive sense but believes in a “laissez-faire” approach, relying on previous practice to keep the organization going. Explore a cross-section of up-to-date content on the trends shaping the future of business and society. For a complete list of latest thinking across industries and business capabilities, scroll to the bottom of the page. The research by Likert and his team concluded that high productivity is associated with systems 3 and 4, while systems 1 and 2 are characterized by lower output. The path-goal theory uses the expectancy theory of motivation to determine ways for a leader to make the achievement of work goals easier or more attractive. Political 4. Jesus inspired his disciples, “Do you not say, ‘Four more months and then the harvest?’ I tell you, open your eyes and look at the fields! On the basis of LPC measures, Fiedler found that the leaders who rated their co-workers favorably were those who found satisfaction from maintaining good interpersonal relationships. Managers in this system do not have complete confidence and trust in subordinates. (d) Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Peter Chao founded Eagles Communications in 1968 and served as its President till 2014. A leader could thus be high on both the dimensions, or high on one dimension and low on the other, or could display gradations in between. However, as the leader becomes acquainted with the employees, he trusts them more. The section will focus on the practice of leadership and will showcase articles that might not necessarily rely on theory, but rely on what empirical evidence shows can benefit leaders and/or the field of leadership in general. Video. By Peter Chao Servant (humble and protective) 4. However, this model needs further testing before the approach can be used as a definitive guide for managerial action. No one style was effective in all situations. The managers in this system work with their subordinates and other managers as a group. It includes telling people what to do, when to do it, how to do it, and who is to do it. In a willingness to learn from the past, we will develop a wiser understanding of who we are, of the potential we have, of what dangers threaten us, of possible avenues out of a maze, and finally help us make the most fulfilling meaning of life and work. 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