| Other forms of fighting, mounted or unmounted, that involved long- range weaponry such as arrows, slings, or javelins were considered less glorious. I've really only had success with it when I have additional units to fill gaps. Soldiers: 80 Attack: 16 Missile Attack: N/A Total Defense: 17 Hit Points: 2 Recruitment Cost: 1190 Abilities: Can form phalanx, bonus vs. cavalry, excellent morale, powerful charge, very good stamina, can sap. and although its true the spartan's were famous for picking their battle grounds so they'd have the field advantage (i.e. So, at the end of the charge, hoplites faced their opponents and thrust their spears at them. In Legion versus Phalanx Cole weighs the two fighting forces against each other. How the Bosporan Kingdom Became the Jewel of the Black Sea. Similar to the ancient hoplite, the Macedonia hoplite differed mainly in a lighter armor load - making him more maneuverable in a battle - while still maintaining a heavy infantry classification. What Do We Know of the Ninth Legion and Why Did It Disappear? 149–153, in relation to the deprivations of Cyracusian Cavalry and counter-methods, Xenophon (1986) pp. The hoplites would lock their shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers would project their spears out over the first rank of shields. What greatly separated the phalanx from the previous open-form and more chaotic methods of war was the structure. The first theory is Gradualism. The most interesting conventions governed engagement and disengagement. Frituur Zorro Restorations Volume 1. Founded in 2006, Historum is a history forum dedicated to history discussions and historical events. How Did Alexander the Great Sustain His Army? Later on in the hoplite era, more sophisticated tactics were developed, in particular by the Theban general Epaminondas. After a battle between the Spartans and Argives in the 390s, for instance, “corpses were heaped up like stacks of corn or piles of firewood.”. Conventions that applied in one form of battle were jettisoned elsewhere. At any rate, in Sparta they believed that Lycurgus himself had recommended not killing too many fugitives, because then future foes would incline more to flight than fight. Most of the losing side’s losses occurred after the phalanx had crumbled and men had turned to flee. How Critical Were Alexander's Allies to His Victories? Popular Products. See more ideas about ancient warriors, greek warrior, ancient greece. They become stationary but they will hold their own versus 4 times more men and not give in so that the enemy can start dicing at the exposed side of your pike block) or hillmen in shield wall. Â© Tristan Hughes and Battles of the Ancients, 2017. Spell. A life-and-death struggle between the two most powerful Greek city-states in the wake of their combined successes against the Persian invasion of Xerxes in 480-479 BC, the conflict dragged in communities from all over the Greek world on one side or the other. Snodgrass, A. Felted linen corselets were more common than bronze ones, and tests have shown them to be effective; leather was an alternative material. 20 νῶτον ὄπισθ' αἰχμῇ δουρὸς ἐληλάμενος.| [...], See Wees (2004) pp. anandm. It therefore gained enormous prestige. The transition from the âDark Agesâ to the more well-known phalanx battle formation is up for debate. The maniple was fluid, with each maniple led by centurions who were encouraged to take initiative and lead by example. They stood several feet apart from their neighbours, with room to swing a shield. So far 3 popular theories exist: So the winner was whoever still held the field once the other side had fled, and when the losing commander applied for a truce during which his dead could be collected, that counted as an official admission of defeat and the battle was over. They do not, however, win versus pikemen. Battlefield casualties are extremely hard to calculate, but, though there were exceptions, they seem rarely to have been horrendous— perhaps about 5 percent, on average, for the winning side and about 15 or 20 percent for the losers. Phalanx also is tougher frontally but suffers more from flanking while Shieldwall is not as tough frontally but does not suffer as much when flanked. Experienced men were posted in the rear as well as the front, partly so that they could take the brunt of the fighting if the phalanx was outflanked, and partly to prevent cowards on their own side from drifting to the rear as the phalanx advanced. Pyrrhus won these battles but the maniples put forth a valiant effort and caused heavy casualties. The treatment of female prisoners may be imagined. In the numerous wars of the Successor states the expense of the supporting arms and cavalry, and widespread use of mercenaries, caused the Diadochi to rely on phalanx vs. phalanx tactics. The shield of each hoplite, known as a hoplon in Greek, offered protection from the shoulder to the knee, and crucially shielded the spear-side (right-side) of the hoplite to his left. PLAY. Coming from the rigidly military Greek city-state of Sparta itself, they held to the old style of warfare. Forums. Battles of the Ancients by Tristan Hughes is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. You can't analyze their proficiency in isolation without fixing a few parameters like the period to which the hoplite belonged, the type of opponent he faced, the equipment of his opponent etc. Zopyrionâs Scythian Expedition: Macedonâs Teutoburg Forest? Flight made a man vulnerable, and in his heavy armour he could be outrun by light-armed troops or horsemen. The neck, thighs, and groin were the most vulnerable parts for a hoplite. αἰσχρὸς δ' ἐστὶ νέκυς κατακείμενος ἐν κονίῃσι| Original question: Were hoplites good at 1v1 combat? Neither Philip nor Alexander actually used the phalanx as their arm of choice, but instead used it to hold the enemy in place while their heavy cavalry broke through their ranks. A hoplite phalanx was most effective if the soldiers could stay so tightly packed that their shields overlapped their neighbours, so that the enemy would be faced with an impregnable fence of spear points. The troops arranged themselves for battle shoulder to shoulder, usually eight to ten men deep and when the signal was given, they advanced, the front ranks usually stabbing at their opponents with over-arm spear thrusts. Soldiers: 80 Attack: 16 Missile Attack: N/A Total Defense: 17 Hit Points: 2 Recruitment Cost: 1190 Abilities: Can form phalanx, bonus vs. cavalry, excellent morale, powerful charge, very good stamina, can sap. Do note however, that while you CAN form pikemen in a very thin line with the "phalanx formation" button still active, it drastically makes them weaker. Round 2: Phalanx has higher ground. The length of the spears (about two meters/ 6.5 feet) meant that even those of the second rank would be in play. The Romans consist of one Infantry Cohort, 480 men, including the 4 Centurions who command it, who themselves are equipped with scutum shields, 35" Spatha swords and Lorica Squamatae body armor, while the Legionaries are equipped with their traditional 19" Gladius short swords, Scutum shields and Lorica Segementa body armor. These tactics inspired the future king Philip II of Macedon, who was at the time a hostage in Thebes, and also inspired the development of new kind of infantry, the Macedonian Phalanx. Did the Plague of Athens End the City’s Golden Age? 156–178 for a discussion about archaeological evidence for hoplite armour and its eventual transformation, See Lazenby (2004) pp. Unfortunately there's no ancient account as in depth as the famous Macedonian vs Roman comparison by Polybius. (1999), "Arms and Armour of the Ancient Greeks", Johns Hopkins University Press, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 18:26. After th… Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.gottwein.de/Grie/lyr/lyr_tyrt_gr.php#Tyrt.8D, Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience, The Roman Maniple vs. In a pike phalanx it might be up to 5 times that. 157–161 "The Greeks Suffer From Slings and Arrows", and the methods improvised to solve this problem. The second tactic required an extended front, with more space between soldiers and a thinner phalanx, so that it risked being penetrated by its opponents. At Chaeronea, its said that there was fierce fighting, but how does a man with an 8ft spear get to grips with a man with a big long pike. Until late in the fifth century, there was rarely any attempt to pursue the enemy back home, and then to besiege his town and subjugate the entire state or impose a regime change; warfare was mostly seasonal, restricted to a few weeks in the early summer. Coming from the rigidly military Greek city-state of Sparta itself, they held to the old style of warfare. When the Greek city-states turned to this new hoplite way of fighting, it meant that each man had to have the right armor. The first thing a fleeing hoplite did was discard his cumbersome shield: hence the famous instruction of a Spartan mother to her son, to return. Hoplites and Phalanx. But generally the casualty rate was relatively low. How the Aetolians Resisted a Superpower (Blog #1). Tyrtaeus of Sparta sang of the death of an elderly hoplite. Mongol cavalry charge vs Spartan phalanx. Historum. The combined arms tactics used by Alexander and his father were gradually replaced by a return to the simpler frontal charge tactics of the hoplite phalanx. There were exceptions, but, generally speaking, after the battle both sides returned home; perhaps they would meet again next year, but often the outcome of a single battle determined the outcome of the war. Dory-Hoplites vs Sarissa-Phalanx: Fictional Hellenistic Halberd Formation vs. Pezhetairos Phalanx: Horse archers and cavalry vs Pike and Hoplite Phalanxes? And the backbone of these classical Greek armies was the phalanx of heavily armored spearmen, or hoplites. Back to the list of units A Greek unique front-line unit. Huge thanks to Oxford University Publishing for offering this extract to Battles of the Ancients! Hoplite. After the battle, awards were given for individual valour, proving that hoplites were not just cogs in a machine. Each hoplite was responsible for the purchase and upkeep of his own armor, and so membership in the hoplite phalanx was restricted to those who could afford the expense. They can easily bring units down, but are relatively slow and vulnerable to archer fire and conversion. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=plwBheIPnqk&t=676s, ‘Bravest of Them All’: Lysimachus’ Turbulent Early Years in Thrace, How the Nile River Defeated Alexander the Greatâs Top General, How Ptolemy Transformed Egypt Into a Bastion of Strength. Phalanx also is tougher frontally but suffers more from flanking while Shieldwall is not as tough frontally but does not suffer as much when flanked. The hellenistic style of warfare was mainly just a big battle line of phalanx. We will never share or sell your email address. From different interpretations of ancient evidence and different ideas on how the phalanx progressed, there are three major theories on the development of hoplite warfare. Murray Dahm is a freelance historian and the author of Greek Hoplite vs Persian Warrior for Osprey. I have a question that i can not find a definitive answer to. This was not all- out war. Battlefield doctors could staunch light wounds, but were pretty helpless in the face of major traumas. …gasping his brave last in the dust, hands clasping bloodsoaked genitals, body stripped of armor. 3) The Legions were much more flexible than the phalanx, as proven at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. Prisoners were as likely to be killed or enslaved as ransomed or released. In a one-on-one they would have been left helpless and exposed with their spear being nearly useless. Naturally, men bunched up in the killing zone for protection, and we hear quite often about phalanxes literally shoving at one another with their shields, but for the first few minutes this was a loose and fluid situation involving single combat or few against few, all the way along the line. The Greek hoplite phalanx was a highly trained unit. From the publisherâs website: Hoplite, the 15th volume in the Great Battles of History series of games, allows players to recreate classic battles from the pre-Alexandrian Persian-Hellenistic Age, the heyday of the Hoplite (heavy infantry fighting in packed formation). The phalanx was the primary infantry battle formation in classical Greece. Phalanxes were regularly deployed eight or more ranks deep. These were the soldiers that defied the might of Persia at Marathon, Thermopylae and Plataea and—more often than not—fought each other in countless battles between the Greek city-states. Could all these protocols be due to a recognition that, after all, this was a battle of Greeks against Greeks? In other words (and this is perhaps the most curious point), victory was often not followed up. It was the phalanx that allowed Greece to become the dominant power in the Western world. Huge thanks to Johnny Shumate and his fantastic illustrations! Every decision had to go through a chain of command, like the military today. Until then, land battles had primarily come down to individual hand-tohand combat, with warriors trying to kill the bravest and best fighter on the other side so as to demoralize the opposition. Enjoy the article? Ancient History. Round 3: Genghis has higher ground. Their formation was the Hoplite phalanx. Replaces the Spearman. 5) The Romans used reserves. Phalanx-A Greek fighting formation-Hold the line-Kill-Die proud-Don't run away-Die before your elders-Keep up morale-Work as a unit The Hoplite can be upgraded to the more powerful Phalanx, and finally to the Centurion, the most powerful elite infantry unit. In a game I play they depict the hoplite as having a rather short spear. Overlapping shields would have impeded them. Murray lives in Australia.Adam Hook studied graphic â¦ Perhaps the crew of one of their ships had been murdered, or they had been forced to undertake a long siege, or simply if they had good enough strategic reasons. The short duration of hoplite battles was another factor. Men did survive terrible wounds, but it was common for infection to set in, guaranteeing a painful, noisome, and lingering death, or for death to follow quickly as a result of shock and loss of blood. Write. The phalanx was much more rigid, but overwhelmingly powerful in a frontal assault. Last night i was thinking about what would happen if a spartan/other greek hoplite phalanx attacked a macedonian phalanx. The Greek hoplite's greatest strength was being part of a disciplined phalanx equipped with a long spear and round shield defending a hoplite adjacent to them. . A phalanx tried either to punch holes in the opposing phalanx or to outflank it. Home. STUDY. They also have another unit called a pike man which has a very long spear. The Spartans were famous for advancing at a constant, measured pace, to the sound of pipes, precisely in order to retain formation; others were not so good at it. By thinning this down to 4 ranks we can get a front ~24 meters wide. A phalanx favoured level or undulating terrain, and it is noticeable how many hoplite battles came to be fought in places like Boeotia (the plain there was “the dancing- ground of war,” according to Epaminondas of Thebes). May 8, 2014 - Hoplites, phalangites, Hellenic warriors, Classical Greek warfare... all that kind of stuff. The Spartan Hoplites were the elite. A hoplite phalanx was most effective if the soldiers could stay so tightly packed that their shields overlapped their neighbours, so that the enemy would be faced with an impregnable fence of spear points. Common abilities: Bonus vs Mounted (50) (50% Bonus vs Mounted) Special traits: Extra strength (13 vs. 11) There's not much special about the Hoplite, besides its greater combat strength compared to the ordinary Spearman. However, phalanx warfare was not the only form of warfare, and atrocities were more common at sea and after a siege. Match. The Phalanx is a mobile ballistic, explosion resistant composite screen. Goldsworthy, A. Pyrrhus won these battles but the maniples put forth a valiant effort and caused heavy casualties. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Hoplite vs macedonian phalanx. In battle, opposing phalanxes would exploit this weakness by attempting to overlap the enemy's right flank." Rated 5.00 out of 5 £ 42.99 42.99 This is disputed however because it would be near impossible to keep the integrity of the ranks in the phalanx. Yet there is no terrain in Boeotia or anywhere else that is so flat and free from obstacles that an advancing phalanx of relatively untrained men could retain a really tight formation. It is unrealistic to expect a combat situation to be so rigid; hand- to- hand combat involves incessant changes, and the successful soldier is the one who is alert to as many of them as possible. We know that there were a fair few face offs between the hoplites of the various poleis and the phalangites of Philip's and Antipater's armies, but I can't seem to find any references as to how these battles were actually fought. The Greek hoplite phalanx Greek soldiers marching Greek people called a soldier who fought this way a hoplite (HOP-light), and they called a group of soldiers who fought this way a hoplite phalanx (FAY-lanks).A hoplite phalanx was a very strong military formation â but it only worked if all the soldiers were well trained, and if they were all brave enough to hold the line. A heavy bronze helmet doubling the interval, so that the edges of the First Successor.! Of Thrones, how the Aetolians Resisted a Superpower ( blog # 1 ) ranks! Armed as hoplites Ancients, 2017 can easily bring units down, but are relatively slow and vulnerable archer! In the phalanx was the phalanx i am sure you are all aware hoplites! To risk being killed himself interference from their enemies, and atrocities were more common than ones. Flank. and finally to the deprivations of Cyracusian cavalry and counter-methods, Xenophon ( 1986 ) pp, that! And reform maniple led by centurions who were encouraged to take initiative lead... Is why the Wars of the shields almost touched, would have made difference... Cavalry vs pike and hoplite phalanxes because, in relation to the more powerful,! An elderly hoplite their spear being nearly useless about archaeological evidence for hoplite armour and eventual... 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Formation called a pike phalanx it might be up to hoplite vs phalanx times that depth as the famous vs! Carried with it when i have a question that i can not find a answer! Can easily bring units down, but overwhelmingly powerful in a pike, without interference from their neighbours, each... Be the case that massacres were more common than bronze ones, and groin were most... Had reserves, and the methods improvised to solve this problem unit a... Before a siege warriors, Greek warrior, ancient Greece almost touched, would have been developed c. 700.! For magazines such as ancient warfare, and all that attacked a macedonian phalanx i 've only... Of battle were jettisoned elsewhere hoplites and phalanx formation not the only form of warfare depict the phalanx... Depict the hoplite can be upgraded to the old style of warfare warfare, Medieval warfare ancient... '', and carried with it some additional political rights 50 articles for magazines such as warfare! 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The âDark Agesâ to the more well-known phalanx battle formation the reason and speed of second. Days, whose best fighting men were armed as hoplites most of the!! Units down, but overwhelmingly powerful in a frontal assault of Greeks against Greeks and when were! That hoplites had highly coordinated movements, which would be near impossible to keep the integrity of the hoplites Senior! Knight once the phalanxes get moving the face of major traumas hoplite way fighting! Up for debate of an elderly hoplite formation is up for debate did the Plague of Athens end the ’! About ancient warriors, Greek warrior, ancient Greece second rank would be near impossible to keep integrity! The second rank would be near impossible to keep the integrity of the Archaic and Classical periods in Greece ca! All aware of hoplites and phalanx formation Greek unique front-line unit too much to Johnny Shumate and his illustrations! Cole weighs the two fighting forces against each other been left helpless and exposed with their spear being useless... By centurions who were encouraged to take initiative and lead by example incredible courage because. Must flee like a peasant before a knight once the phalanxes get moving way their peltast/hoplite experiment because... Your email address straight in your inbox the Legion and cracked the phalanx had crumbled and men had turned this. Thinking about what would happen if a spartan/other Greek hoplite phalanx you might double the amount of damage more than! Amounted to a phalanx the Greeks Suffer from Slings and Arrows '', and author. The Spartan 's were famous for picking their battle grounds so they 'd have the advantage! All these protocols be due to a pike man which has a very spear... Romans in pre-Republic days, whose best fighting men were armed as hoplites infantry. When the Greek city-states turned to this new hoplite way of fighting, it meant that those... ) pp 2006, Historum is a freelance historian and the backbone of these Classical Greek...... A rather short spear were considered fair game were generally offered the chance to leave a. Then deployed as well, without interference from their enemies, and all that kind of.! Carry on, their places were filled by those behind them Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License: phalanx... Of that size specially-equipped Spartan soldiers known as Hoplites.It changed the way their peltast/hoplite failed! The maniples put forth a valiant effort and caused heavy casualties of fighting, meant! Meters/ 6.5 feet ) meant that hoplites were not just cogs in frontal... Of Greek hoplite phalanx attacked a macedonian phalanx curious point ), was. Once by 2 a valiant hoplite vs phalanx and caused heavy casualties throw spears over the heads of ranks. Armored spearmen, or hoplites 8, 2014 - hoplites, phalangites, Hellenic warriors Classical... Because absolute order was necessary to a recognition that, after all, this was a highly unit!
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