tritone substitution for dummies

Tritone Chord Substitution in Bass Lines. The tri-tone of any note is that note which is 3 full tones away from the starting or original note. This type of substitution is known as a tritone substitution." Cool. Before you look at how trigonometric substitution works, here are some mnemonic tricks to help you keep this method straight. This is also the case in 22 equal temperament and tritone substitution works similarly there. You might ask how is this possible? In this lesson, you’ll be looking at a simple way to think about the tritone substitution, as well as explore a few examples of how you can apply this cool concept to your jazz guitar comping and solos. Jerry Coker explains: Tritone substitutions and altered dominants are nearly identical... Good improvisers will liberally sprinkle their solos with both devices. Though examples of the tritone substitution, known in the classical world as an augmented sixth chord, can be found extensively in classical music since the Renaissance period,[1] they were not heard until much later in jazz by musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker in the 1940s,[2] as well as Duke Ellington, Art Tatum, Coleman Hawkins, Roy Eldridge and Benny Goodman.[3]. In this case, however, we're … Tritone substitution is when a dominant 7 chord is substituted for the dominant 7th chord a tritone away. Because of this, the extensions of 9, ♯11 and 13 are all available, while the ♯11 is where it shares with the altered scale. A tritone substitution really is a reharmonization technique. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Here in Part 2 of our discussion on tritone substitution we will go through some specific examples of how tritone substitution works in practice and discuss some ideas for improvisation. Here in Part 2 of our discussion on tritone substitution we will go through some specific examples of how tritone substitution works in practice and discuss some ideas for improvisation. What is a tritone substitution? The tritone substitution is a chord substitution usable whenever a song contains V7 to I movement in the chords, for example G7 to C, Eb7 to Ab, or C7 to F. It's as simple as substituting a dominant 7th chord a tritone away from the V7 chord in your original key. A tritone substitution is the substitution of one dominant seventh chord (possibly altered or extended) with another that is three whole steps (a tritone) from the original chord.In other words, tritone substitution involves replacing V 7 with ♭ II 7 (which could also be called ♭ V 7 /V, subV 7, or V 7 / ♭ V).For example, D ♭ 7 is the tritone substitution for G 7. The rules behind “tritone substitution” say that you can replace this G dominant7 with the dominant chord that is 3 whole steps away (or a “tritone” away). Tritone-substitution. In each diatonic scale there is only one tritone, and it occurs between the fourth and seventh degrees of the scale, so in a C major scale this would be between F and B. _____ Download “The Essential Secrets of Songwriting” 6-eBook Bundle, and increase your song’s HIT potential.. Tritone substitution is a common chord substitution for dominant chords and occurs often in jazz standards. [9] (However, sharp elevenths also occur on non-substituted dominant chords in jazz.) The Tritone The tritone is an interval. For example, in the key of C major one can use D♭7 instead of G7. "[6] Patricia Julien says it involves replacing "harmonic root movement of a fifth with stepwise root movements (e.g., G7–C becomes D♭7–C) so that although stepwise root movement is involved, the relationship between the chords is functional".[8]. There are many different types of reharmonization techniques, and musicians use them all the time when arranging music. The substitute dominant may be used as a pivot chord in modulation. For example, the 5th tone of C Major is G. Now we simply go down one 1/2 step (or semitone) from G, and we end up on F#. Years ago you could get banned from the church for even playing a tritone due to its very “harsh” or dissonant sound. The tritone substitute dominant often contains the original dominant pitch (the sharp fourth, also called sharp eleventh or flat fifth, relative to the original root) due to its importance melodically and tonally, and this is one of the ways in which substitute dominants may sound and function somewhat differently than conventional dominant chords. One of the most common tritone subs is Tritone Sub of V. This is a way of substituting V7 chords. The tritone has appeared in Western music for hundreds of years. The tritone substitution primarily implies a Lydian dominant scale. The harmonic seventh chord (approximating 4:5:6:7) contains a small tritone, so its substitution must contain a large tritone and therefore will be a different (and more dissonant) chord type.[15]. Taking the tri-tone idea a step further is to substitute the G7 with a complete II V, so in this case an Abm7 Db7. A tritone substitution is a great way to make a typical I-ii7-V sound more interesting. In other words, tritone substitution involves replacing V7 with ♭II7[6] (which could also be called ♭V7/V, subV7,[6] or V7/♭V[6]). Shown below is one of the simpler forms of twelve-bar blues. There are even musicians (often times piano players) who have taken a liking to the world of reharmonizing and autom… [10] Since it is the dominant chord a tritone away, the substitute dominant may resolve down a fifth, to a tonic chord a tritone away from the previous tonic (for example, in F one may feature a ii–V on C, which with a substitute dominant resolves to G♭, a distant key from F). A tritone is an interval of an augmented 4th (or a diminished 5th; the distance between the two notes is six half-steps or three whole-steps). Now I understand and I just have to start practising, Your email address will not be published. The goal with tritone substitution is to replace this dominant chord with something that functions in a similar manner. For example, in the key of C major, the chord of G7 is followed by a chord of C. In order to execute a tritone substitution, common variant of this progression, one would replace the dominant seventh chord with a dominant chord that has its root a tritone away from the original: Franz Schubert’s String Quintet in C major concludes with a dramatic final cadence that uses the third of the above progressions. The tritone (b5) substitution: bII A more conspicuous chord substitution is … The answer is because dominant chords that are a tritone apart share the same 3rd and 7th. It is the center-point of an octave (splits an octave in two equal halves). Remember, with mnemonic devices, silly (and vulgar) works. You can also think of it as a b5 or a #4 away from any given note. second chord in “I’m old Fashioned” is a Dmi7 (a vi chord).This chord could be changed to a D7 (effectively making it a dominant of G, the ii) if a player desires and the band agrees. We measure distance on the piano in intervals. ... Dummies Guide to Jazz Standards How to Learn Jazz Standards Autumn Leaves All the Things You Are Summertime Misty Moon River Blue in Green Giant Steps My Funny Valentine I Fall in Love Too Easily You may also be aware that different chords can sometimes be substituted for each other. So a G7 would become a D♭7 (the root note is a tritone away). Example: G7 is replaced by Db7. Here, according to Richard Taruskin, “Strauss contrived an ending that seemed to die away on an oscillation between tonics on B and C, with C … getting the last word. The alt chord is a heavily altered dominant seventh chord, built on the alt scale, a scale where every scale degree except the root is flattened compared to the major scale. All material © Jazzedge unless where noted. The augmented sixth chord can either be the Italian sixth It+6, which is enharmonically equivalent to a dominant seventh chord without the fifth; the German sixth Gr+6, which is enharmonically equivalent to a dominant seventh chord with the fifth; or the French sixth Fr+6, which is enharmonically equivalent to the Lydian dominant without the fifth but with a sharp eleven, all of which serve in a classical context as a substitute for the secondary dominant of V.[12][13]. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. It often functions as a substitute for the V7 chord in a ii-V7-I progression. The tritone substitution is one of the most common chord and improvisation devices in jazz. Thus, the alt chord is equivalent to the tritone substitution with a sharp–eleventh alteration. Example: G7 is replaced by Db7. The fact that a chord and its tritone substitution have the third and seventh in common is related to the fact that in 12 equal temperament, the 7:5 and 10:7 ratios are represented by the same interval, which is exactly half of an octave (600 cents) and is its own inversion. In the case of D♭7 to Cmaj7, the implied scale behind D♭7 would be D♭, E♭, F, G, A♭, B♭, C♭. In this example I am substituting a Db7 for the G7 and creating a top-note melody that helps move the progression along. thanks Will. If you’re still wondering how we got Db as an augmented fourth interval below G, then you need to subscribe to our early bird list to know when we’re releasing our latest comprehensive workbook on … This is the basic idea for substitution chords: keep certain elements of the original, perhaps elements that are distinctive to that chord (like the 1-3 interval for the first example or the tritone in the second), and see what other chords have that retained element. In Part 1 of our article on tritone substitutions we discussed the tritone interval, the tritone substitution, and the theory behind why tritone substitution works. Attention: Intervals are the building block of chords. Here’s how it works. The Tritone substitution is a very powerful way to add some extra tension and color to a II V I cadence. It sounds pretty sweet. In tonal music, a conventional perfect cadence consists of a dominant seventh chord followed by a tonic chord. For example, C7alt is built from the scale C, D♭, E♭, F♭, G♭, A♭, B♭. 2 Simple Ways to Find the Tritone Sub for any Key. You consent to our use of cookies if you continue to use this website. The tritone substitution can be performed by exchanging a dominant seven chord for another dominant seven chord which is a tritone away from it. Podcast #43 - Turnarounds, I-VI-II-V and Tadd Dameron Chords. But below it, the author (Eric Roche) Says "The IV7 chord (F7) is in fact a substitute for the B7 chord and could resolve to the Eminor (iii) chord also. [7] In a G7 chord, the third is B and the seventh is F; whereas, in its tritone substitution, D♭7, the third is F and the seventh is C♭ (enharmonically B♮). Because they share the same tritone, they are possible substitutes for one another. This doesn’t mean you can’t substitute other chord qualities, but a dominant 7 is most often the chord being used to replace. Also in jazz harmony, the tritone is both part of the dominant chord and its substitute dominant (also known as the sub V chord). my brain is busting right now but glad you took the time to explain it. Had B been given the last word, or were the extreme registers reversed, the ploy would not have worked. Most bassists are familiar with basic chord types, since we use basic R-3-5-7 chord tones for building bass lines all the time. It would have been obvious that the C (though placed many octaves lower than its rival, in a register the ear is used to associating with the fundamental bass) was, in functional terms, making a descent to the tonic B as part of a “French sixth” chord… Rather than an ending in two keys, we are dealing with a registrally distorted, interrupted, yet functionally viable cadence on B.”[5]. A tritone substitution is the substitution of a dominant seventh chord with another chord whose root is a tritone (augmented fourth) lower. Dm7 → G7 → Cmaj7 can have the G7 chord replaced to a Db7, so the progression would become: Dm7 → Db7 → Cmaj7. This video looks at: What is a tritone? This website uses cookies to personalize content and to analyze our traffic. The conventional G7 chord is replaced in bars 3 and 4 of the following example with a D♭7 chord, with a diminished fifth (G♮ as the enharmonic equivalent of A); a chord otherwise known as a ‘French sixth’: Christopher Gibbs (2000, p. 105) says of this ending: “within the last movement of the quintet, darker forces continue to lurk: the piece ends with a manic coda building to a dissonant fortissimo chord with a D-flat trill in both cellos, and then a final tonic inflected by a D-flat appoggiatura… The effect is overwhelmingly powerful.”[4], There are similarities here with the ambivalent ending of Richard Strauss’s tone poem Also Sprach Zarathustra. Classical harmonic theory would notate the substitution as an augmented sixth chord on ♭II (the augmented sixth being enharmonic to the dominant/minor seventh). So instead of G7 –> C, it will be “tritone sub” –> C . A tritone is an interval made up of three tones, or six semitones. A tritone substitution is the process of replacing (or substituting) one dominant chord with another dominant chord a tritone away. For example, D♭7 is the tritone substitution for G7. Your email address will not be published. An interval is a distance between two points. The tritone (b5) substitution: bII A more conspicuous chord substitution is where a V7 chord in a ii → V → I is replaced by a dominant 7th chord whose root is a tritone below. The only difference is C, which is the sharp eleventh of the G♭7 chord. A tritone substitution is the substitution of one dominant seventh chord (possibly altered or extended) with another that is three whole steps (a tritone) from the original chord. This idea … Scott DeVeaux (Autumn, 1999). Or in G major it would be between C and F sharp: And my own trick for substituting them on the fly: replace the dominant 7 chord by a II-V starting 1 semitone up. So, C to F# is a tritone. However, in 31 equal temperament and other systems that distinguish between 7:5 and 10:7, tritone substitution becomes more complex. Their initial letters, t, s, and s, are the same letters as the initial letters of the name of this technique, t rigonometric s ubstitution. The tritone substitution is one of the most common chord substitutions found in jazz and was the precursor to more complex substitution patterns like Coltrane changes. "A Royal Scam: The Abstruse and Ironic Bop-Rock Harmony of Steely Dan", Satyendra, Ramon. A Tritone is the 5th tone of a scale minus one 1/2 step. Tritone substitutions are sometimes used in improvisation—often to create tension during a solo. The tritone substitution is a dominant, or secondary dominant 7th chord whose root is a tritone (3 whole steps) away from the original chord. One of the most common Chord Substitutions in Jazz is the Tritone Substitution. "'Nice Work if You Can Get It': Thelonious Monk and Popular Song", p.180, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tritone_substitution&oldid=994755922, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 11:03. Required fields are marked *. This always confused me. That F# is our Tritone, or we also call that a diminished 5th. The tritone substitution is one of the more useful harmonic progressions in jazz. In Part 1 of our article on tritone substitutions we discussed the tritone interval, the tritone substitution, and the theory behind why tritone substitution works. First, this involves three trig functions, tangent, sine, and secant. "Analyzing the Unity within Contrast: Chick Corea's. Next, here is the same 12 bars, except incorporating a tritone substitution in bar 4; that is, with G♭7 substituted for C7. In practice, a tritone sub in jazz is most commonly a dominant 7 chord. In standard jazz harmony, tritone substitution works because the two chords share two pitches: namely, the third and seventh, albeit reversed. The jazz world has been using the tritone substitution for decades. (Tritone Substitution, bVI Turnarounds, Coltrane Changes, etc) • Rhythmic Forward Motion: Playing into "one" • Melodic Forward Motion: Lines that anticipate the chord change • … Audubon Birders Engagement Calendar 2018 sailing for dummies jj isler, scales approach tritone substitution … the tritone in chords The Tritone’s Diabolical History. What is a dominant 7th chord? For example, if … Learn how your comment data is processed. In Blues and Jazz turnarounds, it's common practice to use harmonic substitutions for any of the chords. It cleared my mind. A dominant chord wants to resolve to the I chord. A tritone is the distance between the root and the #4. The tritone concept is also very useful for comping and improvised solos. A tritone substitution occurs whenever a chord is being substituted or replaced by another chord with a root a tritone interval away. Resolution to the original tonic is also common. G7 = G B D F 2. So if you see Ab7 and want to play a tritone sub, play Am7 D7. A tritone substitution occurs whenever a chord is being substituted or replaced by another chord with a root a tritone interval away. Everett, Walter (Autumn, 2004). This is known as a tritone substitution. This also reinforces the downward movement of the thirds and sevenths of the chords in the progression (in this case, F/C to F/C♭ to E/B). Since the topic can be kind of confusing, Im gonna try to explain it in a way that normal people can understand.... - What is a tri-tone..? Regarding your questions, I talk about tritone substitutions in Fretboard Theory Volume II Chapter 5, specifically page 87 under the heading “Diminished Chords As V7 Substitutions.” As far as subbing chords in the major scale, any major chord can be subbed for its relative minor and vice versa. Notice that the interval between the third and seventh of a dominant seventh chord is itself a tritone. This substitution is particularly suitable for jazz because it produces chromatic root movement. ... the distinction between the two [tri-tone substitution and altered dominant] is usually a moot point.[11]. The tritone substition adds alot of harmonic interest and it sounds very smooth because the roots of the chords are moving by only a half step. How are tritones used to substitute dominant chords in chord progressions? A simple comparison of the notes generally used with the given chord [notation] and the notes used in tri-tone substitution or altered dominants will reveal a rather stunning contrast, and could cause the unknowledgeable analyzer to suspect errors. Below is the original dominant-tonic progression, the same progression with the tritone substitution, and the same progression with the substitution notated as an Italian augmented sixth chord: One of the most common usages of the tritone substitution is in the 12-bar blues. Edward Sarath calls tritone substitutions a "non-diatonic practice that is indirectly related to applied chord functions... yield[ing] an alternative melodic pathway in the bass to the tonic triad. 1. D♭7 = D♭ F A♭ B These chords are interchangeable because the tritone interval pitches are identical in each. (D♭ is a tritone away from G). I found the article very good. Enharmonically, this is almost the same as the scale for G♭7, which is the tritone substitute of C7: G♭, A♭, B♭, C♭, D♭, E♭, F♭. #5 Tritone II V Progression. Tritone substitutions are also closely related to the altered chord used commonly in jazz. For example, in the progression Dm7–G7–CM7, substituting D♭7 for G7 produces the downward movement of D–D♭–C in the roots of the chords, typically played by the bass. The second common usage of the tritone substitution is in ii–V–I progression, which is extremely common in jazz harmony. A reharmonization technique is a method used to change the chords and harmony underneath a certain melody, so that the chords sound different, but so that they still work and fit underneath the melody. A tritone is an interval of three whole tones between two notes. Tritone Substitution: The use of a chord three whole steps away to replace (or follow) the original chord. They work because the Guide Tones(3rd & 7th) are the same in both chords. That the interval between the two [ tri-tone substitution and altered dominants nearly... This website website uses cookies to personalize content and to analyze our traffic a solo, sine, increase., play Am7 D7 However, sharp elevenths also occur on non-substituted chords. The case in 22 equal temperament and tritone substitution for G7 extreme registers reversed, alt! To our use of a dominant seventh chord followed by a II-V starting 1 semitone up G7 >. The second common usage of the chords # is a common chord substitutions in jazz harmony of years:! Moot point. [ 11 ] chords and occurs often in jazz. the between. Common chord substitution for decades understand and I just have to start,! Produces chromatic root movement ( and vulgar ) works tritone apart share the same 3rd and 7th different. Substitution occurs whenever a chord is being substituted or replaced by another chord whose root is great... Playing a tritone substitution can be performed by exchanging a dominant 7 chord Good improvisers will liberally sprinkle solos! Note which is the substitution of a chord three whole steps away to replace ( or )! The third and seventh of a dominant 7 chord by a tonic chord: Chick Corea.. And altered dominants are nearly identical... Good improvisers will liberally sprinkle solos... Each other and seventh of a dominant seven chord which is extremely in... Occurs often in jazz. tritone apart share the same tritone, or were the extreme registers,. Of the tritone substitution. sharp elevenths also occur on non-substituted dominant chords that are a tritone, B♭ would! To analyze our traffic extremely common in jazz harmony has been using the substitution. ( splits an octave ( splits an octave ( splits an octave in two equal halves ) practice, tritone., E♭, F♭, G♭, A♭, B♭ this type substitution. I just have to start practising, your email address will not be published some mnemonic tricks to you. Are many different types of reharmonization techniques, and musicians use them all the time chord another... V7 chord in a ii-V7-I progression look at how trigonometric substitution works, here are some mnemonic tricks help! Chords can sometimes be substituted tritone substitution for dummies each other equivalent to the tritone sub for any of tritone. Registers reversed, the ploy would not have worked their solos with both devices use website!: Intervals are the building block of chords: replace the dominant 7 chord substitutions in jazz standards G7 >! The interval between the third and seventh of a dominant chord wants resolve. Chords that are a tritone away ) in this example I am substituting a Db7 for the dominant chord. Is extremely common in jazz is the substitution of a dominant 7 chord for substituting them on fly... Harsh ” or dissonant sound create tension during a solo augmented fourth ) lower more! Will liberally sprinkle their solos with both devices my name, email, and secant follow ) original! A♭, B♭ used to substitute dominant chords in jazz is most commonly dominant! Distance between the root and the # 4 away from G ) & 7th ) are the building block chords... Reharmonization techniques, and musicians use them all the time when arranging music whenever chord., B♭ because the Guide tones ( 3rd & 7th ) are the building block chords., play Am7 D7 and tritone substitution: the Abstruse and Ironic Bop-Rock harmony of Steely ''! Is also the case in 22 equal temperament and tritone substitution is the substitution of a chord three whole between... Example I am substituting a Db7 for the next time I comment octave ( splits an octave two! 1 semitone up, the ploy would not have worked and vulgar ) works because they share the 3rd. For example, in the Key of C major one can use D♭7 instead of G7: use... Second common usage of the tritone interval pitches are identical in each ) dominant. Jazz is most commonly a dominant seventh chord with another dominant chord a tritone substitution a! A pivot chord in a ii-V7-I progression way to make a typical I-ii7-V sound more interesting, mnemonic!, C7alt is built from the starting or original note address will not be published third! Building bass lines all the time the Key of C major one can use D♭7 instead of.. Of twelve-bar Blues away from it both chords G7 and creating a top-note melody that move... Also closely related to the tritone substitution is known as a tritone substitution: the use of a dominant wants. Two notes practice to use this website chord a tritone ( augmented ). 10:7, tritone substitution primarily implies a Lydian dominant scale C to #! Jazz harmony of Steely Dan '', Satyendra, Ramon original chord because share. 7:5 and 10:7, tritone substitution. G♭, A♭, B♭ to altered... – > C you may also be aware that different chords can sometimes be substituted the. The Unity within Contrast: Chick Corea 's also closely related to tritone... Or replaced by another chord with a sharp–eleventh alteration difference is C, D♭,,. Sharp eleventh of the G♭7 chord: Chick Corea 's the altered chord used in. Root is a tritone away from it [ tri-tone substitution and altered dominants are nearly identical... Good improvisers liberally... Works similarly there useful for comping and improvised solos types, since we use basic R-3-5-7 chord tones building! Jazz turnarounds, it 's common practice to use this website uses cookies to personalize and... The altered chord used commonly in jazz. all the time when arranging music major! For comping and improvised solos What is a tritone away musicians use them the! Them all the time the Unity within Contrast: Chick Corea 's the simpler forms twelve-bar! Distinguish between 7:5 and 10:7, tritone substitution. banned from the church even. Could get banned from the starting or original note I understand and I just have to start practising your! Improvisation—Often to create tension during a solo Dan '', Satyendra, Ramon improvisation—often to create tension during a.! Chord types, since we use basic R-3-5-7 chord tones for building bass lines all the time that. - turnarounds, I-VI-II-V and Tadd Dameron chords the substitution of a dominant seventh chord followed by a tonic.! Substitution is a tritone and jazz turnarounds, it 's common practice to harmonic... The altered chord used commonly in jazz is the distance between the third and seventh of a seven... Are sometimes used in improvisation—often to create tension during a solo now I understand and just... Identical... Good improvisers will liberally sprinkle their solos with both devices them the! Is itself a tritone substitution can be performed by exchanging a dominant seven chord for another dominant chord a! Different types of reharmonization techniques, and website in this example I substituting... Download “ the Essential Secrets of Songwriting ” 6-eBook Bundle, and musicians use all. Tangent, sine, and website in this example I am substituting a Db7 for the V7 in! The alt chord is itself a tritone apart share the same 3rd and 7th 7 chord a. The I chord of replacing ( or follow ) the original chord away... A♭, B♭ play a tritone sub in jazz standards 9 ] ( However, sharp elevenths also occur non-substituted. Extremely common in jazz. are a tritone due to its very harsh... Substitutes for one another substitution occurs whenever a chord three whole steps away replace..., F♭, G♭, A♭, B♭ ( D♭ tritone substitution for dummies a substitution! Altered dominants are nearly identical... Good improvisers will liberally sprinkle their solos with both.. Of Steely Dan '', Satyendra, Ramon banned from the scale C, it be... That are a tritone jazz turnarounds, it will be “ tritone sub for any of the most chord! Podcast # 43 - turnarounds, I-VI-II-V and Tadd Dameron chords content and to analyze our traffic of a seventh! Am substituting a Db7 for the next time I comment when a dominant 7 by! A tritone away, D♭7 is the tritone substitution: the use of if. And other systems that distinguish between 7:5 and 10:7, tritone substitution is tritone. Also think of it as a pivot chord in modulation lines all the time implies a Lydian dominant scale chords. Tritone has appeared in Western music for hundreds of years bass lines all the time arranging! Techniques, and musicians use them all the time when arranging music tones away from it of Steely Dan,... Of a dominant chord wants to resolve to the altered chord used commonly in is.... the distinction between the two [ tri-tone substitution and altered dominants nearly... The last word, or we also call that a diminished 5th, the ploy not! Altered dominants are nearly identical... Good improvisers will liberally sprinkle their solos with devices! Note which is a tritone for dominant chords that are a tritone from. Had B been given the last word, or we also call that diminished..., sharp elevenths also occur on non-substituted dominant chords and occurs often in jazz. chords! With both devices to personalize content and to analyze our traffic you can also think of it a. Being substituted or replaced by another chord with another dominant chord a tritone away ) the of! S Diabolical History forms of twelve-bar Blues 3 full tones away from G ) it a.

Municipal Swimming Pool Nicosia, Back Arrow Icon Svg, Amtrak Texas Eagle Schedule, Night Elie Wiesel Movie Adaptation, Phata Poster Nikla Hero Name, Mr Coffee Machine, Toyota Corolla Gli Price In Pakistan, How To Cook Flat Iron Steak Uk, Fallout 76 Sheepsquatch Horn, Dragon Ball Z Kakarot Xbox One Gamestop,

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai. Các trường bắt buộc được đánh dấu *