These activities, particularly massively multiplayer online role-playing games, deliver pleasure, a sense of achievement, social interaction, and an immersive experience to online gamers. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. For example, in one study, consumers were shown to spend more money using debit cards rather than cash payments, given the increased transparency of cash payments (Runnemark et al. Reference Larche, Musielak and Dixon2017). }. In one study of meta-analytic methods, an examination of outcomes reported in 14 clinical trials revealed that, depending on which outcomes from the trials were chosen by the reviewers, over 34 trillion meta-analyses were possible . Investigation, These findings suggest that the way systematic reviews of gaming disorder have been reporting results and drawing conclusions may have introduced bias into the gaming disorder literature, possibly misleading future research, policy-making, and patient care. Conclusion: The findings provide an in-depth analysis of the relationship between ER and behavioral addictions and highlights the key role ER plays in these addictive behaviors. Searches combined terms related to gaming disorder and terms related to depression or anxiety (S1 Search Strategies). Whether consistent or inconsistent in the studies, positive results were incorporated into five of the six reviews that included depression findings from the study. At present, there are still controversies in the academic community concerning the public health problems related to gaming disorder. However, these gains tend to be short term and further support post-treatment completion is likely required (Stevens et al. Reference King, Gainsbury, Delfabbro, Hing and Abarbanel2015). 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During the initial data extraction, we noticed discrepancies in how specific studies were reported in the reviews, resulting in potential selective outcome reporting at the review level. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Loot boxes are defined as âin-game purchases consisting of a virtual container that awards players with items and modifications based on chanceâ (Rouse, Reference Rouse2018). In five of these 10 studies, results from both analyses were robust and positive, while five studies reported inconsistent results. MGH Institute of Health Professions, Mass General Brigham, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Roles https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240032, Editor: Florian Naudet, University of Rennes 1, FRANCE, Received: November 27, 2019; Accepted: September 18, 2020; Published: October 26, 2020. However, a recent cross-cultural study found little evidence of gaming disorder among smartphone users who played mobile games (Lopez-Fernandez et al., Reference Lopez-Fernandez, MÃ¤nnikkÃ¶, KÃ¤Ã¤riÃ¤inen, Griffiths and Kuss2018). Some reasons for this were: studies used a measure of Internet addiction or other exposure (e.g., "excessive" gaming), studies reported a composite measure (depression/anxiety/stress) as depression, and possible mistake in citation or data extraction (e.g., reporting data for a problematic Internet use subgroup rather than problematic gaming subgroup). Delineation and measurement of a clear construct with no overlap with other related conditions, such as gambling, Internet use, and technology use, are crucial to this field. For example, the 2010 study by Rehbein and colleagues  reported two findings related to depression—a positive association between gaming disorder and suicidal thoughts in one subsample, but a null association between gaming disorder and self-reported depression in the full sample. Extracted data for a 10% random sample of studies were validated by the second and third investigator. Reference Song, Park, Han, Roh, Son, Choi and Lee2016). The consequences of internet gaming disorder. Worldwide, prevalence estimates of gaming disorder are considerably heterogeneous and often appear to be exceedingly high. Rodda, Simone In this paper, we discuss two groups of research studies: the systematic reviews (henceforth called ‘reviews’) and the primary studies included in those reviews (henceforth called ‘studies’). The specific measurement or scale asked questions about computer, video, online, or digital game use in general, rather than just a single game (e.g., World of Warcraft. All but one of the three reviews that incorporated these studies reported these associations as positive. An empirical survey study, The psychology of esports: a systematic literature review, Are you addicted to Candy Crush Saga? This narrow scope made a detailed analysis possible, but findings regarding associations between gaming disorder and other outcomes (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) may have been different. Narcissists are motivated to play with friends in seeking for their admiration and praise; Machiavellians are motivated to have friends in order to manipulate and exploit â¦ Were narrative reviews, overviews of reviews, commentaries, and other non-systematic reviews of studies; Only examined Internet addiction or other technological addiction; or. 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