how long were kluger and her mother in theresienstadt?

I thought that very often: I have something to tell. That's exciting and I'm curious about experiencing that here. My mother lived until she was very old, and she died in Los Angeles. It was the last time she saw the young woman. She returned to Vienna in 2008 for the city’s festival One Book One City, for which 100,000 copies of a chosen volume is distributed. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. Klüger, born in Vienna, Austria, in 1931, was just six-years-old when German troops arrived in the country. My seven Hitler years were over. German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been lobbying to welcome refugees, all along repeating the phrase “we can do it.”. It's very unusual that this Remembrance Day is observed year after year and that a nation is working through the crimes it has committed, rather than what might have been won on the battle field. Check against delivery. Ruth Klüger is to speak in the German Bundestag. I recited poems. I am now 84 years old, but back then, I had not lived through many winters: I had just turned 13. Today, she is impressed that Germany is welcoming refugees. You do everything you can to pass the time. In May 1944, when Kluger was 12 years old, she and her mother were herded onto a cattle car for Auschwitz-Birkenau. Even if it knows it's experiencing something unusual, the child thinks, at least I'll be able to talk about it later. Ruth Kluger is the author of the new memoir, Still Alive: A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered (The Feminist Press). Children take whatever they experience for granted. But a funeral draws a line. I can say a few religious words about remembrance and find closure with a sense of contentedness. Contact It was there a young woman whispered to her that she should lie to the officer. I imagine what it would be like if I had to go to a concentration camp now, and that's a devastating thought. (25.01.2016), Speaking at the opening of a new exhibition, Chancellor Angela Merkel has emphasized the importance of keeping the memory of the Holocaust alive. Download it here. "There were lots of tears in the interviews," says author Sarah Helm of her meetings with last survivors of the Nazis' only concentration camp for women, Ravensbrück. I've been thinking lately about how inconceivable it would be for me to be yanked out of my apartment and sent away by hostile authorities. And I didn't even know that Auschwitz had been liberated. In 1942, at the age of eleven, she was deported to the Nazi "family camp" Theresienstadt with her mother. Swept up as a child in the events of Nazi-era Europe, Ruth Kluger saw her family's comfortable Vienna existence systematically undermined and destroyed. Surviving was not normal. When she went before parliament eight years later, she offered a snapshot of her life as an immigrant and refugee as the war in Syria displaced millions of people. We pretended to be Germans fleeing the Russians, which was ironic because we actually wanted to get over to the Russians. I enjoy being at home, in a nice apartment with a cat. She grew up as the Nazis assumed power and overran Europe. Both emigrated to the United States in 1947, where Klüger attended Hunter College in New York City before earning her Ph.D. at UC Berkeley. After spending some time in Bavaria, the two eventually emigrated to the United States where … Together with her mother, she survived three concentration camps: Theresienstadt, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Christianstadt. And that it has now become a power for peace. Still Alive (2001) written by Ruth Klüger, is a memoir of her experiences growing up in Nazi-occupied Vienna and later in the concentration camps of Theresienstadt, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Christianstadt.However, as it's written by Klüger as a 70-year-old woman, the memoir goes beyond her experience as an inmate, chronicling her escape from Christianstadt's death march with her mother … Privacy Policy | Kluger was born 70 years ago in Vienna. I am impressed by the openness with which the government and, if I understand correctly, also a large portion of the population, are taking in refugees. Both versions of her autobiography are comprised of four parts--Vienna, the camps (Theresienstadt, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Christianstadt), Germany, New York--plus an epilogue. The acclaimed memoir, translated into more than 12 languages, was lauded by the Washington Post as "a book of surpassing, and at times brutal honesty." Ruth Klüger is a writer and university professor. Children can sleep or use the toilet anywhere, but old women sitting next to each other in the latrine! Swept up as a child in the events of Nazi-era Europe, Ruth Kluger saw her family's comfortable Vienna existence systematically undermined and destroyed. Her mother had lived long enough to develop a last love, with her great-granddaughter. Her mother had lived long enough to develop a last love, with her great-granddaughter. She said the Nazis' brutalities were part of Germany's common memory. She was a little girl who lost her mother at a very early age, a loss which she felt keenly her entire life. And the joy was immense, but it took a few days to really sink in. (Klüger, 2001) They reunited at a concentration camp named Christianstadt in Poland. Many had already been gassed and others were on death marches. Today, Klüger resides in Irvine, California. It was at this time that Kluger and her mother escaped and fled to Bavaria. By age eleven, she had been deported, along with her mother, to Theresienstadt, the first in a series of concentration camps which would become the setting for her precarious childhood. I see new generations that are trying to make amends. As a professor of German studies, she has taught at Princeton, UC Irvine and in Göttingen, Germany. She arrived at UC Irvine in 1976, briefly leaving for Princeton from 1980-86, before her return to campus and her retirement in 1994. Along with her mother, Dr. Kluger was sent in 1942 to Theresienstadt, a camp-ghetto located near Prague. We use cookies to improve our service for you. How important is it to commemorate those who were brutally murdered by the Nazis? But that's not the case for Holocaust survivors. I think I was fleeing. If you've been to a real burial, you'll notice the difference. The dead are ashes scattered somewhere. “The gas chambers were working at full capacity,” she said in her speech all those years later. 'Landscapes of memory' is the story of Ruth's life. In the growing brutality of the war, Klüger remembered the poetry of her school lessons, repeating the words and rhythms in her head. But I'm not so naïve to think that all Germans are obliging toward non-Germans. In April 1945, the Americans marched into Straubing in Bavaria. Background Ruth Kluger was born on October 30, 1931, in Vienna, Austria. The winter of 1944/45 was the coldest of my life and was surely never forgotten by those who survived it in Europe. Glendale Becomes First CA City to Recognize History as Sundown Town, Girlfriends Launch Investment Group to Build Wealth in Black Community, Growing Diversity With the LA Orchestra Fellowship, The Lost History of Robert Stewart, LAPD’s First Black Cop, California Consumer Do Not Sell My Personal Information. But it's not a bad choice because Auschwitz was a particularly destructive camp. (2001--her name Americanized "Ruth Kluger"),2 it had long been a literary sensation in Europe, reaping prestigious literature prizes and glowing commentaries from the hardest-to-please sources. Legal notice | Originally from Vienna, Ruth Kluger spent a period of her childhood in Theresienstadt, the Nazi concentration camp located approximately 100 kilometers outside Prague, before being transported, like the majority of Theresienstadt’s inmates, to Auschwitz-Birkenau. “I owe her my life,” Klüger told parliament. Her daughter's feelings for her were always ambivalent -- perhaps more hate … I am still getting used to that. Ruth Kluger was born in Vienna in 1931 and was only six years old in March 1938 when the Nazis marched in to "annex" Austria. Swept up as a child in the events of Nazi-era Europe, Ruth Kluger saw her family's comfortable Vienna existence systematically undermined and destroyed. The ritual has its place. Klüger’s book was selected for distribution and discussion. Holocaust Remembrance Day is pegged to the liberation of Auschwitz in January 1945. Klüger, a professor emerita of German at UC Irvine, died October 5 at the age of 88. From my German-Jewish perspective, that is something new. Situations were described with very little emotion, which is why it reminded me of a textbook. By age eleven, she had been deported, along with her mother, to Theresienstadt, the first in a series of concentration camps which would become the setting for her precarious childhood. Swept up as a child in the events of Nazi-era Europe, Ruth Kluger saw her family's comfortable Vienna existence systematically undermined and destroyed. And you didn't have your own bathtub or toilet. News Holocaust survivor and author Ruth Klüger dies at 88. IRVINE, Calif. — When Holocaust survivor and author Ruth Klüger addressed the German parliament in 2016, her remarks were stripped of rhetorician gesticulations or inflections. | Mobile version, Bundestag (Germany's lower house of parliament). An ex-intelligence agent, le Carre knew his subject firsthand. Ruth Kluger is one of the child-survivors of the Holocaust. If you want to take pictures with your smartphone and quickly share beautiful results, you need effective image editing tools. Kluger's story of her years in the camps and her struggle to establish a life after the war as a refugee survivor in New York, has emerged as one of the most powerful accounts of the Holocaust. 2020 is Beethoven’s anniversary year. They weren't even scattered by someone, they were thrown into a pit. Now, 100 of their works are on show in Berlin. (25.01.2016), Artists held in Nazi concentration camps documented the horror of torture and death in drawings and paintings. This Remembrance Day has been chosen randomly. That's why I gladly accepted the opportunity to speak here. The book, known as Weiter Leben: Eine Jugend in her mother tongue, was published in Germany in 1992. It was January 27, Germany’s day of remembrance for the Holocaust victims of the country’s last great war. Klüger speaks to DW about Auschwitz, getting older and her speech in the German Bundestag. Swept up as a child in the events of Nazi-era Europe, Ruth Kluger saw her family's comfortable Vienna existence systematically undermined and destroyed. “In many ways, Germans grappled with the Holocaust and their anti-Semitism, but I think she felt a lot of Germans hadn’t.”. “That was the main reason why I was so pleased to accept your invitation and take advantage of this opportunity to speak about the atrocities of the past here, in this setting, in your capital city – in a country where a very different kind of example is being set with the seemingly understated and yet heroic words: ‘We can do it.’”, Holocaust Survivor and noted author Ruth Klüger, dead at 88 (Photo Courtesy of UC Irvine). DW Digital tests the most popular apps. Ms. Kluger wrote about her life from the time she was a little girl in Vienna through the horrors of WWII to life after the war. At my mother's funeral, I had the feeling that it's important to bury the dead. Ruth Klüger was born in Vienna in 1931. Only her mother stands out, a shrewd paranoid who persisted into her 90s, outlasting two more husbands. Together with her mother, she survived three concentration camps: Theresienstadt, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Christianstadt. Could you understand at the time what was happening? But surviving under those circumstances is a coincidence. Ruth Klüger was born in Vienna in 1931. Ruth Klüger, who survived the concentration camp in Auschwitz as a child and wrote a memoir about her time there, has died. It was a time of horror during which Klüger survived hunger, forced labor, and the evils of Auschwitz. I see that so much has changed. But you can t condemn any mother for wanting to hold on to her child. How does it feel for you to be here? Her father was a young doctor with a promising future, her mother "the daughter of a wealthy chemical engineer." That hadn't been clear to me until then. Her hands remained clasped or folded, and her voice was even. She translated her story into English herself, publishing it in 2001. In your childhood memoirs, "Weiter leben" (Keep living), you describe yourself as one who frequently moves out of apartments and cities, as someone on the run. By age eleven, she had been deported, along with her mother, to Theresienstadt, the first in a series of concentration camps which would become the setting for her precarious childhood. I appreciated her insights into the Holocust museums that exist today along with her … It was there a young woman whispered to her that she should lie to the officer. Ruth Klüger survived three Nazi concentration camps. There was a time when Kluger and her mother were in different concentration camps. SPIEGEL: How long did you and your mother stay in Vienna? I always try to remember where I was on that day. Her memory and life’s story are preserved in the speech, and her internationally bestselling memoir, Still Alive: A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered. On the other hand, I always ask myself how all those old women endured it back then. I knew so little about anything else. As a child, you spent time in three concentration camps: Theresienstadt, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Christianstadt, a sub-camp of Gross-Rosen. For me, the Hitler years were from the age of seven to 14, until 1945. There were also illegal transports to Palestine. In her memoir, Klüger wrote of an encounter with a German man who had been in the Hitler Youth. After the war Klüger studied in Regensburg and then in 1947 emigrated with her mother to the United States, where she graduated from Hunter College and went on to earn a Ph.D. in German from Berkeley. Of course, later on, no one wanted to hear about it, but that's a different story. She escaped with her mother in the closing months of the war, falling in among other German refugees. By age eleven, she had been deported, along with her mother, to Theresienstadt, the first in a series of concentration camps which would become the setting for her precarious childhood. By age eleven, she had been deported, along with her mother, to Theresienstadt, the first in a series of concentration camps which would become the setting for her precarious childhood. “I am one of the many onlookers whose response to this has shifted from bemusement to admiration,” she said. With Germany's harder coronavirus lockdown in place, the Berlin International Film Festival plans massive changes for its upcoming edition. Her threats of abdication were rarely taken seriously; Maria Theresa believed that her recovery from smallpox in 1767 was a sign that God wished her to reign until death. How can you even sleep? What does January 27 - the day Auschwitz was liberated in 1945 and International Holocaust Remembrance Day - mean to you personally? That was a kind of survival aid. Her father fled the city in 1940 and she and her mother were deported to Theresienstadt in September 1942. They were deported to Theresienstadt together, and from there later to Auschwitz. Thanks to her mother's ingenuity and amazing luck, they were not gassed but managed to get transferred to a labour camp: it was her idea that 12-year-old Ruth should pretend she was 15 to be eligible. Kluger and her mother were imprisoned at Theresienstadt concentration camp when she was 11 and later transferred to Auschwitz and then Gross-Rosen. That this used to be a fantastic country, not just concerning Jews, but also otherwise. Kluger's style is wry ("the muse of history has a way of cracking bad jokes at the expense of the Jews"), and she can shock readers with simple, honest admissions, such as her embarrassment, in the 1970s, when her mother asks unanswerable questions of a speaker about the death camps. Klüger and her mother ultimately survived by escaping from a death march. It was in Joseph's interest that she remained sovereign, for he often blamed her for his failures and thus avoided taking on the responsibilities of a monarch. I was seven years old when Hitler marched into Austria and from then on, life was completely different. (25.01.2016). She was 12-years-old, half-starved and convinced an SS officer she was 15, the cutoff for labor. We were already fleeing. Two years after that, she was deported alongside her mother to Theresienstadt, where they were held until being sent to Auschwitz. Not surprisingly, these severe losses had a profound impact on Klüger’s life and the ghosts of her brother and father frequently appear in her writings. Big plans were made — then the pandemic came. This week: "InstaLab for iOS & Android". When the camp was invaded, everyone was forced to relocate. God knows it was not like that two or three generations ago. “She just thought it was important to capture her story and present it to the Germans,” said John Smith, chair of the Department of European Languages and Studies. The thought of sleeping in a bed with four other people! Klüger agreed, ending her speech in Berlin in support of Merkel’s policy, the final four words the borrowed language of the country’s head of state. They don't know any better. I am now 84 years old. The conductor talks with DW about life in amidst of the coronavirus. Kluger's story of her years in the camps and her struggle to establish a life after the war as a refugee survivor in New York, has emerged as one of the most powerful accounts of the Holocaust. I know there are problems and large sections of the population that are resistant to taking a new attitude toward foreigners. Our new Spectrum News app is the most convenient way to get the stories that matter to you. It's not like millions of people were liberated there. Did the literature and poetry that you loved so much help you at all in the camps? When you speak with survivors, you notice that each one has a unique survival story. The country, divided by the Berlin Wall until 1990, was reunifying. Death was normal. I take sleeping pills now even though I have a comfortable mattress. That feeling has changed over the past 10 to 15 years. Recounting her experience there, she challenged readers to “rearrange a … Her brother and father were murdered. Is that still the case? Two years later, her father fled the city. This, Smith said, is when Klüger’s love of German poetry gestated. But it seems to be a majority, or at least a strong and willful part of society, that is in favor of opening the gates and accepting others. Her breakthrough as an author came in 1992 with "Weiter leben" (Keep living). Nearly all his bestsellers have been made into blockbusters — hardly surprising, since his novels deliver page-turning suspense and complex espionage plots. By age eleven, she had been deported, along with her mother, to Theresienstadt, the first in a series of concentration camps which would become the setting for her precarious childhood. Two years after that, she was deported alongside her mother to Theresienstadt, where they were held until being sent to Auschwitz. What is important for you to express in your speech in the Bundestag? You were only 11 years old when you were sent to Theresienstadt. © 2020 Deutsche Welle | It's important that this tremendous change has taken place. “More than 90 years between them,” Dr. Kluger wrote, “but whenever they were together, chatting and touching, they met in a present that miraculously stood still for them, time frozen in space made human. “Theresienstadt,” she writes in her autobiography, “was hunger and disease, a small military village of … A court has decided that an Amsterdam museum can keep a painting sold by the Lewenstein family during Nazi occupation, raising questions about art restitution. Perhaps redeemed.” Ms. Klüger, you will be speaking in the German parliament, the Bundestag, on Wednesday in Berlin - the city from which the Nazis planned and ordered horrendous crimes against humanity. Speech by Ruth Klüger on 27 January 2016 in remembrance of the victims of National Socialism . "Never again" is often an important part of commemoration. They would move to two other camps (including Auschwitz-Birkenau) before the war ended. The war was over. “The gas chambers were working at full capacity,” she said in her speech all those years later. As far as that goes, we are all abnormal. Those who were left were those in the sick barracks who had reason to believe they wouldn't survive. In September 1942 Ruth and her mother were forced to leave Vienna on one of the last transports to Theresienstadt, a ghetto in northwestern Czechoslovakia. Although she and her husband, Pavel Brandeis, never had any children of their own, in Theresienstadt Friedl was finally able to give free rein to her maternal instincts, and to nurture, and teach hundreds of children who saw her as a surrogate mother. In 1947, she immigrated to the US and studied at the University of California, Berkeley. The huge loss in my family was as if I had literally lost something, like an object that I could no longer find. 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