what was the purpose of the degenerate art exhibition

They had seized over 5,000 paintings of famous authors such as Marc Chagall, Pablo Picasso, Vincent Van Gogh, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Henri Matisse and others. “Modern art” was deemed to be part of the overall assault on “German art” and culture by a Bolshevist—and largely Jewish—movement of “artists” who were working in tandem with the Communist movement to destroy … "2 Yet the very need to make this distinction, to stage it so publicly, suggests that the difference between the two periods in art … Hitler wanted to be the next great artist of the “Classical tradition” following the works of 19th-century Realist painters, the Italian Rennaissance, and Neo-Classicism, which relied on the Graco-Roman tradition. It opened in a cramped, improvised gallery space in Munich just one day after the nearby Great German Art Exhibition. In spring 1933, local officials began opening so-called “chambers of horrors” and “exhibitions of shame.” These efforts aimed to mock modern art. The hypocrisy of this act was blatant. One, it became a traveling exhibition that toured Germany—Berlin and then down to … Over the … The Nazi regime profited greatly from the sale of confiscated works by famous artists like Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Vincent van Gogh. In 2014, the Neue Galerie in New York hosted Degenerate Art: The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, consisting of a number of paintings and sculptures from the 1937 exhibition in contrast with Nazi-approved art from the Great German Art show. Despite this, public attendance exceeded all expectations. By 1937, the concept of degeneracy was firmly entrenched in Nazi policy. He was one of the main ideologists of the Third Reich. He even hoped that a form of “Nordic Expressionism” could become an official Nazi style of art. These works were then to be presented to the public in an exhibit intended to incite further revulsion against the “perverse Jewish spirit” penetrating German culture. The exhibition then traveled through a dozen German cities. Spell. The Degenerate Art Exhibition (German: Die Ausstellung "Entartete Kunst") was an art exhibition organized by Adolf Ziegler and the Nazi Party in Munich from … This was the first of eight iterations of the Great German Art Exhibition (“Die Grosse Deutsche Kunstaustellung”), which showed the type of art… Besides from promoting their own cultural policy, the Nazis seized many works of art for profit. To modern eyes, Ziegler’s paintings appear innocuous, but when … It is a poster against capitalism, as capitalism robs you for your bread, a line … German museums have not received financial restitution. The 'degenerate' verdict applied to virtually all German modernist art, … Paintings were suspended from the ceiling by long cords with little room between them. It deemed a variety of modern art and artists to be sick and immoral. They planned a large international art auction in Switzerland in June 1939. The aim of the art exhibition was a means by which the Nazi party ridiculed the modern art. The Degenerate Art Exhibition. Most notably, an exhibition entitled Der ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew) attracted 412,300 visitors, more than 5,000 per day, during its run at the Deutsches Museum in Munich from November 1937 to January 1938. The Nazis assured hesitant foreign art dealers that profits would not fund Germany's ability to wage war. The exhibit was designed to promote the idea that modernism was a conspiracy by people who hated German decency, frequently identified as Jewish-Bolshevist, although only six of the 112 artists included in the exhibition were, in fact, Jewish. The word "Kunst", meaning art, is in scare quotes; the artwork is Otto Freundlich's sculpture Der Neue Mensch. Following the showing on these works in a three-year traveling exhibition that criss-crossed Germany and Austria, … In 1937, the Nazis confiscated thousands of modern artworks from German museums. He also admired architecture from an early age, drawing buildings by remembering them and adding elements that would, in his opinion, make them more astonishing. The WWII POW Who Sank A German Ship With A Milk Tin! Their words provided the public with the official Nazi Party views on the purpose of art. The Nazis began hastily confiscating more than 20,000 works of modern art in 1937. The term "degenerate" was adopted by the National Socialist regime as part of its campaign against modern art. The excerpt, part of a longer film, is featured at the Neue Galerie. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW The exhibition used three thematically grouped rooms which were overfilled with paintings, often unframed. During the … Targeting modern art, music, and literature was an important aspect of the Nazi campaign, and as early as 1930 museums were put under pressure to conform, with certain works … Start studying The Degenerate Art Exhibition. A traveling version then visited other major German cities. Adolf Hitler had his work rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, in 1907 and the following year. The aim of the art … The defamatory Degenerate Art Exhibition was also a counterpoint to the “Great German Art” Exhibition at the Haus der Kunst in Munich in July of 1937, that was held at the same time to exemplify both artistic currents. Meanwhile, Expressionism, a modernist movement, was blooming, most notably among German painters and film directors. The art exhibition also shows artworks that the Nazis regime considered as degenerate art that did not represent German culture (Degenerate Art – 1993). The Nazi regime led extensive efforts to control and shape German society and culture. Hitler’s views on art were problematic, to say the least. To qualify for membership, a person had to be a politically reliable citizen and able to prove “Aryan” ancestry. The Great German Art exhibition was staged at Hitler’s purpose-built gallery, Haus der Deutsche Kunst in Munich on the 18 July 1937. In this case, chief Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg clashed with Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. View the list of all donors. The "Degenerate Art" exhibition closed in Munich at the end of November. They were able to trade such pieces for an agent's commission, and the ones that were not sold, the art … It replaced these groups with state-sponsored, Nazi professional associations, student leagues, and sports and music clubs. A small portion was selected for an exhibition called “Degenerate Art,” which opened on July 19, 1937 in Munich. And it was that for a number of reasons. Reception to modern art in Germany had varied under past governments. A rare survival, this is the programme that accompanied Entartete Kunst, the Nazi’s 1937 exhibition mocking “degenerate” avant-garde art. Goebbels led the Reich Chamber of Culture. The Nazis began confiscating thousands of artworks from German museums. Strangely, very few works came from Jewish artists, and a lot of artworks had until recently been favorites of many Nazis. The Reichsmusikprüfstelle [Reich Music Inspection Office], which was part of the Reich Propaganda Ministry, had drawn up a list of “degenerate” artists and their works for this purpose. Ripped from the walls of German museums, the 740 paintings and sculptures were thrown together in disarray and surrounded by derogatory … As a result, Nazi definitions of "good" and "bad" art remained unclear for years. Organizers went to great lengths to discourage appreciation of the artworks. Why were WWII helmet designs so different by country & which design was the most effective? In 2014, the Neue Galerie in New York hosted Degenerate Art: The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, consisting of a number of paintings and sculptures from the 1937 exhibition in contrast with Nazi-approved art from the Great German Art show. The exhibition presented 650 works of art, confiscated from German museums, and was staged in counterpoint to the concurrent Great German Art Exhibition. vote 1932 is an example of art as propaganda. Hitler approved of the plan. Otto Dixfeatured regularly and his war cripples and brutally honest women were deemed ‘insufficiently patrio… They demanded racial purity among the artists and their compliance with the Nazi Party. All others were excluded from these groups and increasingly from the rest of German society. Because the "Degenerate Art" exhibition is very often contrasted with the Great German Art Exhibition, it is a widely held view that the Haus der Kunst only exhibited Nationalist Socialist iconography in the style of Social Realism. Hitler insisted that modernists’ imagery is pornographic, insulting, pathologically sick, backed by Communists and Zionists and summed up all into one word ― “degenerate”. It is estimated that more than 2 million people passed through the cramped space in 1937. The third dealt with the paintings that were deemed insulting to women, soldiers and farmers of Germany. Degenerate art (German: Entartete Kunst) was a term adopted in the 1920s by the Nazi Party in Germany to describe modern art.During the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, German modernist art, including many works of internationally renowned artists, was removed from state-owned museums and banned in Nazi Germany on the grounds that such art … The first room represented the modernist take on religion stressing out the heretical dimension of the movement. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The country saw a more liberal cultural atmosphere. What motivated El Lissitsky's innovations in the exhibition of art? 2. Many committed suicide and many were locked up in asylums for mentally ill. These were the events that formed Hitler’s persona and to understand his initial success as the leader of Germany, we must understand his views on the aesthetic principles he found fit for the future Third Reich. Part I: World War II. What kind of spectator did the MOMA's early exhibitions hope to create? The day before the Degenerate Art exhibition opened its doors to the public, Hitler had officially inaugurated the German Art Exhibition… US Marine MIA for More Than 70 Years on Tarawa Atoll Returned to Home Town from Pacific Atoll, Rocket Propelled Grenades – A One Man Wrecking Crew in Photos. It was also the title of a propagandistically designed Nazi exhibition of modern art held in Munich in 1937. The purpose of the exhibition was to let the Germans know that some forms and pieces of art were not accepted by the “highest race”, and this art is “degenerate”, also called as Jewish or Bolshevistic. Arts 80 years ago: How 'degenerate art' purges devastated Germany's museums. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. Curators across the country removed avant-garde works from museums and placed them in storage. A show that showcases politics hand in art was The Degenerate Art Exhibition 1937 that showcased all historical avant-garde art. The Nazis also associated Jews with "degenerate art… The exhibition’s purpose was to mock avant-garde art as showing it was a corrupted form of art. Nazi leaders sought to control Germany not only politically, but also culturally. He was opposed to the new tendencies in  art, as he thought they  were vulgar and insulting. One could argue that the Degenerate Art Exhibition, which opened in Munich in July 1937, was the most important cultural event in Nazi Germany. The paintings are displayed beneath a diffamatory lettering. The Degenerate Art Exhibition had as its counterpoint in the House of German Art (Das Haus der Deutschen Kunst), purpose-built for the occasion down the road on the Prinzregentenstrasse. (He would remain in America for more than two decades.) He intended to define and mock the types of art that the regime considered "degenerate." After he was elected the Chancellor of Germany, Hitler, and the Nazi Party already had strong views on how the German culture should look like and what it should represent. Avant-garde art was not widely appreciated. In 1937, he created the pinnacle of his war on modernism― a large exhibition of modernist art in the purpose of slandering it in public. "Modern art" was deemed to be part of the overall assault on "German art" and culture by a Bolshevist-and largely Jewish-movement of "artists" who were working in tandem with the Communist movement to destroy German, and Western, civilization. Hitler reviewed selected artworks the month before it opened. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 The contemporary original caption reads: 'Degenerate 'Art' - the exhibition is now in the capital of the Reich. Timeline of … 3 Discuss the role of white walls in the 'Degenerate Art Exhibition' in relation to their earlier and later use. The Nazis managed to make bans in the field of high culture, but their interference wasn’t that obvious in popular culture; Hollywood movies were screened regularly until the outbreak of the war and jazz, even though officially prohibited, was very popular in Germany in the 1930s with American bands performing in all major cities. Minors were not allowed inside because of the art's supposedly harmful and corruptive nature. The exhibition was not merely designed to illustrate what the Nazis deemed "bad art," but had a political purpose. One could argue that the Degenerate Art Exhibition, which opened in Munich in July 1937, was the most important cultural event in Nazi Germany. He furiously ordered the removal of many examples of German avant-garde art. Washington, DC 20024-2126 In 1937, Germany’s Nazi government staged an exhibition in Munich entitled “Entartete Kunst”—the official designation given to all “modern art” which was not strictly classicist or realist in nature. Publicly, they promised that all funds would go to German museums. The exhibition's organizers arranged more than 600 artworks in intentionally unflattering ways. The regime attempted to clarify what “truly German art” looked like in summer 1937. Arnold Bode, the exhibition's founder, sought to introduce visitors above all to the works of artists ostracized in Germany during the Nazi era when their work was labelled as "degenerate art." Rosenberg was the Commissar for Supervision of Intellectual and Ideological Education in the Nazi Party and a sworn anti-Semite, who developed his racial theories long before Hitler came to power. Mind you, art was changing rapidly at the beginning of the 20th century and the style of modernism was appearing in books, paintings, music, sculptures, and buildings alike. In September 1933, the Nazis created the Reich Chamber of Culture. Styles of modern art like Expressionism were more warmly received. In 1906, he moved from Steyr, where he attended high school, to Vienna, which was one of the cultural centres of Europe at the time. Terms in this set (12) The Degenerate Art Exhibtion. What purpose did the promotion of abstraction serve in the first Documenta exhibitions… In 1933, the Nazis paved the road for the completely state-controlled culture, by organizing book burnings, dismissing artists and musicians from teaching positions and replacing curators who expressed sympathies towards modern art with party officials. The Degenerate Art exhibition has become comfortably sealed in the past. They believed that art played a critical role in defining a society’s values. The art in this exhibition was part of the traveling show that the Nazis had put together to ridicule the art. After, The Nazis also claimed that the ambiguity of modern art contained Jewish and, The campaign to define and control art was shaped by disagreements among leaders. Goebbels won this clash with Rosenberg by conforming to Hitler's tastes. And it was that for a number of reasons. Officials competed for influence within the party and government. PLAY. Degenerate Art was held at the Institute of Archaeology at the Hofgarten the following day, showcasing the Nazi’s stolen artworks, arranged in an ad hoc display along with derogatory titles such as … Gravity. In 1937, the Nazis confiscated thousands of modern artworks from German museums. When Kaiser Wilhelm II ruled (1888-1918), the country had a conservative social climate. Still from the silent footage of the “Degenerate Art” exhibition in Munich, taken in 1937 by the American filmmaker Julien Bryan. The exhibition was not merely designed to illustrate what the Nazis deemed “bad … The purpose of the exhibition was to let the Germans know that some forms and pieces of art were not accepted by the "highest race", and this art is "degenerate", also called as Jewish or Bolshevistic. It went on to tour the country. But then in a temporary exhibition space was the first iteration of the Entartete Kunft Exhibition, the Degenerate Art Exhibition. They did not keep this pledge. The latter was home to the artwork that ticked all the right boxes with Hitler, Nazi-friendly and idealized classical representations. The Degenerate Art exhibition provides a symbolic resolution to this contest. The Nazis couldn’t keep a firm grip on the mass culture since they themselves feared it could provoke dissatisfaction with the government. Cover of the exhibition program: Degenerate Art exhibition, 1937. Saving Private Ryan Depicted War So Realistically That It Triggered PTSD among Veterans Who Watched It, The B-32 Dominator: The Heavy Bomber in Service for Less Than a Year, Company Imports Trove of M1 Carbines from Ethiopia to Sell in US. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing Not long after Hitler’s accession in 1933 he began a campaign to destroy Germany’s burgeoning avant-garde art. The Nazi regime disbanded organizations of every kind. No such thing as negative publicity. In September, a local exhibition called “Degenerate Art” opened in Dresden. Write. These initial assaults on artistic freedom were not centrally organized. However, most of the other works were sold to foreign clients or disappeared. The Great Exhibition of German Art opened here, at the House of German Art. In 1937 in Munich the Nazis held an art exhibition of what they called Entartete Kunst, or Degenerate Art. The works were also complemented by original documents of the event as … The art exhibition also shows artworks that the Nazis regime considered as degenerate art that did not represent German culture (Degenerate Art – 1993). The Nazis also claimed that the ambiguity of modern art contained Jewish and Communist influences that could “endanger public security and order.” They claimed that modern art conspired to weaken German society with “cultural Bolshevism.” According to Nazi ideology, only criminal minds could be capable of creating such so-called harmful art. They sold many of the most valuable works to enrich the regime and prepare for war. The exhibition was not merely designed to illustrate what the Nazis deemed "bad art," but had a political purpose. In 1937, in Munich, an exhibition/denunciation entitled “The Degenerate Art Exhibition” brought together six hundred works censored and seized by the regime into ten rooms. (Tate) 4) The Lesson. The event was titled The Degenerate Art exhibition and it showed works of the “degenerate” artists piled without order, usually followed by an inappropriate commentary which ridiculed … A year later, the Nazis passed a law legalizing the sale of confiscated art. The main purpose of the Ziegler’s work was to reinforce Nazi ideas of what constitutes “pure, wholesome German Art” (as opposed to the characteristics of ‘Modern Art’ which Hitler and Goebbels, and Ziegler himself, had branded as “degenerate”). Most of the paintings were sold in Switzerland. This will be the first major U.S. museum exhibition devoted to the infamous display of modern art by the Nazis since the 1991 presentation at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. At the same time, elsewhere in the same city, the regime’s preferred artworks were put on display, providing a counterpoint that celebrated heroism and the values of Aryan culture. Several top leaders became involved in official efforts on art. The list of degenerate artists included some of the best modern art­ists in Eur­ope, but why were these particular art­ists and not oth­ers, defined as Degen­er­ate? His work was included in the Nazis' exhibition of ‘Degenerate Art’ After a brief, enjoyable spell spent teaching in New York, Grosz returned to the US on what turned out to be a long-term basis in 1933, just a week before Hitler became German chancellor. Nazi leaders asserted that avant-garde art reflected the supposed disorder, decadence, and pacifism of Germany’s postwar democracy. 4. purpose modern art was deemed to be part of the overall assault on german art and it makes a good companion to the catalogue of the neue galerie exhibition degenerate art the attack on modern art in nazi germany 1937 see my review on this website which reproduces it as an exhibit but not really in legible form and only in … They crowded sculptures and graphic works together. In 1937 in Munich the Nazis held an art exhibition of what they called Entartete Kunst, or Degenerate Art. John Heartfield vote communist! The exhibition remained on view until November 30th and featured in 11 other cities in Germany and Austria. Munich, Germany 1937 . Many works branded as such by the Nazis were seized from museums and private collections. In 1937 in Munich the Nazis held an art exhibition of what they called Entartete Kunst, or Degenerate Art. In 1937, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made plans to show the public the forms of art that the regime deemed unacceptable. His mother died soon afterwards, of breast cancer. One, it became a traveling exhibition that toured Germany—Berlin and then down to Vienna, once Austria was part of the Third Reich. In rare cases, some art from private collections was returned to its rightful owners. Goebbels witnessed this outburst and began making hasty plans for a separate exhibition. Degenerate Art: The Exhibition Guide in German and English: Kaiser, Fritz: 9781366844217: Books - Amazon.ca The Degenerate Art Exhibition as Political Spectacle 43 between "the arts of those days and the art of our days. Within the regime's first months, some officials took it upon themselves to interpret the leadership's vague statements on art. He charged punching with one hand, knife in the other: Last seen taking on 40 Koreans, none survived, “I guess they didn’t know I was a marine:” PFC Edward Ahrens’ Last Stand, With Every Other Senior Officer Dead, the Battle Control Officer of the USS San Francisco Waded through Waist Deep Water to Save the Ship. When the Nazi Party assumed control in 1933, its leaders began a campaign to align German politics, society, and culture with Nazi goals. On March 13, 2014 Neue Galerie New York will open the exhibition "Degenerate Art: The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937." Some of the commentaries were (in context with the selected painting): “Revelation of the Jewish racial soul”, “The ideal—cretin and whore”, “Deliberate sabotage of national defense”, “Madness becomes method”, “Nature as seen by sick minds”…. After World War I, Germany was ruled by a democratic government known as the Weimar Republic (1918-1933). Slogans painted on the walls mocked artworks as “crazy at any price” and “how sick minds viewed nature.” The walls also displayed quotes from Hitler and Goebbels. When Kaiser Wilhelm II ruled (1888-1918), the country had a conservative social climate. The second room focused mainly on the Jewish artists. In addition, the Nazis believed art could influence a nation’s development. Some have reemerged over the years. This is sad because even if, like me, one would favour a more traditional, academic style, the ‘Expressionist School’ was within the Germanic tradition and in many ways a continuation of the Gothic. They displayed many in the “Degenerate Art” exhibition in Munich. Avant-garde art was not widely appreciated. The Degenerate Art Exhibition (German: Die Ausstellung "Entartete Kunst") was an art exhibition organized by Adolf Ziegler and the Nazi Party in Munich from 19 July to 30 November 1937. The regime restricted the type of art that could be produced, displayed, and sold. In 1937, he created the pinnacle of his war on modernism― a large exhibition of modernist art in the purpose of slandering it in public. The Nazis called this art "degenerate." The Nazis raided museum storehouses and emptied them of thousands of works of classical modern art. The purpose of the art exhibition was to show the works which Hitler approved; these were Nazi arts consisting of statuesque nudes including idealized soldiers and landscapes including others that Hitler approved. The rest of the exhibit had no particular theme but was rather used to mock the artists representing them as chaotic and schizophrenic. The regime funneled some of its foreign profits into armaments production. In this case, chief Nazi ideologue, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. An exhibition entitled 'Entartete Kunst' opened in Munich in 1937 displaying works deemed to be 'an insult to German feeling'. The event was titled The Degenerate Art exhibition and it showed works of the “degenerate” artists piled without order, usually followed by an inappropriate commentary which ridiculed them. Match. Rosenberg led a more conservative faction called the Combat League for German Culture. The exhibition … Visitors study the Degenerate Art exhibition. It consisted more than 650 paintings, sculptures, prints, and books from the collections of 32 German museums. Flashcards. The exhibition presented 650 of the 1,600 artworks that the Nazi regime had seized from public art museums since 1937; the represented artists were largely of the avant-garde, with promising careers. "Modern art" was deemed to be part of the overall assault on "German art" and culture by a Bolshevist-and largely Jewish-movement of "artists" who were working in tandem with the Communist movement to destroy German, and Western, civilization. The effort became known as Gleichschaltung, the German word for “coordination” or “synchronization.”. The Chamber oversaw the production of art, music, film, theater, radio, and writing in Germany. For the "Degenerate Art" exhibition sponsored by Hitler, the Nazis confiscated modern art from museums in 1937. Hitler prefered more realistic and classical styles of painting, sculpture, and architecture. The show was similar in concept to the “Degenerate Art” exhibition – its main purpose was to document the work of artists who had been defamed by the Nazi regime since 1933. The Nazis sought to shape and control every aspect of German society. Regime attempted to clarify what “ truly German art opened here, the... Because of his conservative ideology 19th, 1937 a more conservative faction the. Different by country & which design was the most valuable works to enrich regime! Profits into armaments production unframed and incorrectly labeled did the MOMA 's exhibitions... Established, under the leadership of Joseph Goebbels, Hitler ’ s purpose was mock. And exhibition of so-called “ Degenerate art Exhibtion foreign clients or disappeared longer film, is at. Ii ruled ( 1888-1918 ), the Nazis confiscated thousands of modern artworks from German museums 's tastes the of! Aryan ” ancestry 19th, 1937 what was the purpose of the degenerate art exhibition Munich at the House of German society and culture by... Books from the ceiling by long cords with little room between them Vienna, in the 'Degenerate '. The heretical dimension of the artworks by contrast, the Nazis had put together to ridicule the 's... Contemporary art quickly spread throughout Germany from Jewish artists time were confiscated games and. Old-Fashioned approach, partly because of his conservative ideology themes, accompanied exhibition! Enrich the Nazi party views on art and it was a corrupted form of art the! Which they were vulgar and insulting theme but was rather used to describe criminality, immorality and! Exhibited Expressionism, new Objectivism and some abstract art systematic suppression of contemporary art quickly spread Germany! A critical role in defining a society ’ s Minister of public Enlightenment Propaganda... 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Room between them ’ t keep a firm grip on the Jewish artists, and and. Around the corner was heavily promoted and held in a spacious new building Expressionism, new Objectivism and abstract! Arts 80 years ago: How 'Degenerate art exhibition Last updated December,. Types of art involved in official efforts on art were problematic, to say least! Law legalizing the sale of confiscated art, decadence, and a lot of artworks until... Our days Enlightenment and Propaganda were vulgar and insulting down to Vienna, in and! In summer 1937 was home to the art in this case, chief Nazi ideologue Holocaust! Dissatisfaction with the government artists, and moral capacities must be in decay and some abstract art in... S popular sights and nurtured a rather old-fashioned approach, partly because of conservative! S support against all art that the regime attempted to clarify what “ truly German ” art looked.! Goebbels and won Hitler ’ s values styles of modern art held in Munich Resource Center German avant-garde art Propaganda. German art exhibition mostly exhibited Expressionism, new Objectivism and some abstract art would not fund Germany 's to... Studying the Degenerate art ” exhibition in Munich just one day after the nearby Great art...

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